DIARY OF A TAR HEEL
STEPHEN B. WEEKS
CLASS OF 1886; PH.D. THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
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TIE WEEKS OMiJECniON
UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL
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A Tar Heel Confederate Soldier
By L. LEON
Stone Publishing Company
Charlotte, N. C.
by L. LEON
This diary was commenced for the fun of writing
down my experience as a soldier from the Old North
State. I never thought for a moment that I would
put it in print; but now that I am getting old and
have read so many histories written by our officers,
but have never seen in print a history written by a
I know that my diary is truly the life of the man
behind the gun, therefore I make bold to publish it.
I am sure my experience was that of other privates,
and a true history of my companies and regiments, as
well as the Brigade, Division, and even Corp that I
belonged to. I am certain that the men of '61 to
'65 who read this will recall most vividly the camp-
ing, marching, fighting and suffering they endured
in those never-to-be-forgotten days of long ago. And
to the younger generation of Southern-born it will
show how we endured and suffered, but still fought on
for the cause we know was right.
April 25, 1861 — I belong to the Charlotte Grays,
Company C, First North Carolina Regiment. We
left home for Raleigh. Our company is commanded
by Capt. Egbert Ross. We are all boys between the
ages of eighteen and twenty-one. We offered our
services to Governor Ellis, but were afraid he would
not take us, as we are so young; but before we were
called out our company was ordered to go to the
United States Mint in our town and take same. We
marched down to it, and it was surrendered to us.
We guarded it several days, when we were ordered
to Raleigh, and left on the above date.
Our trip was full of joy and pleasure, for at every
station where our train stopped the ladies showered
us with flowers and Godspeed. We marched to the
Fair Grounds. The streets were lined with people,
cheering us. When we got there our company was
given quarters, and, lo and behold! horse stables with
straw for bedding is what we got. I know we all
thought it a disgrace for us to sleep in such places
with our fine uniforms — not even a washstand, or any
place to hang our clothes on. They didn't even give
us a looking-glass.
[ 1 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
Our company was put in the First North Carolina
Regiment, commanded by Col. D. H. Hill, Lieut-
Col. C. C. Lee, and Maj. James H. Lane.
We enlisted for six months. Our State went out
of the Union on May 20th, and we were sent to Rich-
mond, Va., on the 21st. Stayed there several days,
when we were ordered to Yorktown, Va. Here they
gave us tents to sleep in. This looked more like sol-
dering, but we would have liked to have had some
of that straw in Raleigh.
The day after we got here our company was sent
out with spades and shovels to make breastworks —
and to think of the indignity ! We were expected to
do the digging! Why, of course, I never thought
that this was work for soldiers to do, but we had to
do it. Gee! What hands I had after a few days'
work. I know I never had a pick or a shovel in my
hand to work with in my life.
A few days after that a squad of us were sent out
to cut down trees, and, by George ! they gave me an
axe and told me to go to work. Well, I cut all over
my tree until the lieutenant commanding, seeing how
nice I was marking it, asked me what I had done be-
fore I became a soldier. I told him I was a clerk in
a dry-goods store. He said he thought so from the
way I was cutting timber. He relieved me — but what
insults are put on us who came to fight the Yankees !
Why, he gave me two buckets and told me to carry
water to the men that could cut.
We changed camp several times, until about the
[ 2 ]
3d of June, when we marched fifteen miles and halted
at Bethel Church, and again commenced making
breastworks. Our rations did not suit us. We wanted
a change of diet, but there were strict orders from
Col. D. H. Hill that we should not go out foraging.
Well, Bill Stone, Alie Todd and myself put on our
knapsacks and went to the creek to wash our clothes,
but when we got there we forgot to wash. We took
a good long walk away from the camp, and saw sev-
eral shoats. We ran one down, held it so it could
not squeal, then killed it, cut it in small pieces, put it
in our knapsacks, returned to the creek, and from there
to camp, where we shared it with the boys. It tasted
Our comrade Ernheart did not fare so well. He
went to a place where he knew he could get some
honey. He got it all right, but he got the bees, also.
His face and hands were a sight when he got the
beehive to camp.
June 10 — At three o'clock this morning the long
roll woke us up. We fell in line, marched about five
miles, then counter-marched, as the Yankees were ad-
vancing on us. We got to our breastworks a short
time before the Yankees came, and firing commenced.
We gave them a good reception with shot and shell.
The fight lasted about four hours. Our company was
behind the works that held the line where the ma-
jor of the Yankee regiment, Winthrop, was killed.
After he fell our company was ordered to the church,
but was soon sent back to its former position. This
[ 3 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
is the first land battle of the war, and we certainly
gave them a good beating, but we lost one of our
regiment, Henry Wyatt, who was killed while gal-
lantly doing a volunteer duty. Seven of our men
were wounded. The Yankees must have lost at least
two hundred men in killed and wounded. It was their
boast that they could whip us with corn-stalks, but to
their sorrow they found that we could do some fight-
ing, too. After the fight some of the boys and my-
self went over the battlefield, and we saw several of
the Yankee dead — the first I had ever seen, and it
made me shudder. I am now in a school where sights
like this should not worry me long.
Our commander in this fight was Col. Bankhead
Magruder. The Yankee commander was Gen. B. F.
From now on I will never again grumble about
digging breastworks. If it had not been for them
many of us would not be here now. We returned
the same night to Yorktown, full of glory.
On July 1 8 we heard that our boys had again
whipped the Yankees at Bull Run.
Also, on July 21, again at Manassas.
We changed camp a number of times, made forti-
fications all around Yorktown, and when our six
months were over we were disbanded, and returned
home. So my experience as a soldier was over.
I stayed home five months, when I again took arms
for the Old North State, and joined a company raised
by Capt. Harvev White, of Charlotte, and left our
[ 4 ]
home on April 23, 1862, at 6.30 P.M. I stayed in
Salisbury until next night, when I, with several oth-
ers, took the train for Raleigh, where our company
was. We went to the insane asylum to see Lang-
freid, who wanted to go home by telegraph to see his
cotton and tobacco. After spending most of our day
in town we went to camp four miles from Raleigh.
We stopped a carriage, and the driver said he would
take us to camp for three dollars. We halved it with
him and he drove us there. We reported to Captain
White, and he showed us to our hut. We were sur-
prised to find it without a floor, roof half off and
■"holey" all over. We commenced repairing, and went
to the woods to chop a pole for a part of the bedstead.
We walked about a mile before we found one to suit
us. It was a hard job to get it to our hut. We put it
up and put boards across and then put our bedding on
It, which consisted of leaves we gathered in the woods.
And now it is a bed fit for a king or a Confederate
It commenced raining at dark, which compelled us
to cover with our oilcloth coats. We did not get
wet, but passed a bad night, as I had gotten used to
a civilian's life again.
May 31 — Up to date nothing transpired worth re-
lating, but this morning got orders to leave. Left at
6 A.M. Our company got passenger cars, and the
balance of our regiment had to take box cars.
June 1 — Arrived at Weldon, North Carolina, at 7
o'clock. We set up our tents at Gerresburg, a short
[ 5 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
march from Weldon. Our company is close to the
railroad track. We collected broom straw and made
a bed of down of it.
June 2 — We received some visitors from home.
June 3 — Raining all day, but have a good time with
the ladies in this neighborhood. They treated my
comrade and myself only as Southern ladies know
how to treat their soldiers — with respect and some-
thing good to eat.
June 4 — Still raining, and the roads are very
June 5 — We were marched to town and received our
arms — Springfield muskets. Next day went off very
June 7 — At u o'clock to-night we were roused out
of our sleep and marched to Weldon Bridge, as the
river was so swift that it was thought the bridge
would wash away. We went there to knock the sides
off, so that the water could run over it, but we got
there without tools. When they came the water was
receding, so we returned to camp.
June 8 — I am very tired from our first night's
June 20 — Up until ^this date there has been noth-
ing worth recording, but to-day got orders to fall in
line with two days' rations cooked. Left at 12 M. in
box cars. We knocked holes in them to get fresh
air. We laid over six hours eight miles from Gerres-
burg in order to let the passenger cars pass us. Several
of our company left the train in quest of supper. We
[ 6 ]
found a house where a lady promised to give us sup-
per for fifty cents each. As we were doing full jus-
tice to her supper the train started, we left in a hurry,
and did not have time to pay for our meal. I don't
suppose she gave us her blessing.
June 21— We reached Petersburg, Va., this morn-
ing at half-past two, and had barely laid down with
a brick wall for my pillow when breakfast was an-
nounced in the shape of Mack Sample, who told us
where we could get it. I ran the blockade with Katz,
and went to see Mike Etlinger. He was not at home.
Afterward we met Wortheim, and we all went again
and got something good to eat. We then returned
to our regiment, which is the 53d North Carolina
Regiment, infantry, Col. William Owens, comman-
der. We are enlisted for three years, or the war. We
fell in line and marched to our camp, which is on
Dunn's Hill, just outside of the city.
June 22 — Nothing new.
June 23 — Moved our camp two miles up the road
toward Richmond. It is a very bad camp — low
ground and muddy. But there is a factory here, and
plenty of girls to make up for the damp ground.
June 24 — We had a drill to-day, and went to town
to see some friends.
June 25 — Reported fighting near Richmond.
June 26 — We received marching orders this morn-
ing. The long roll beat at one in the night. We
marched four miles on to Richmond, where we met
some wounded of our army that had been injured at
[ 7 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
the Point of Rocks. We got to this place after
marching all night, too late for the Yanks — they had
gone. We stayed here until the 28th, then marched
to Drewry's Bluff, twenty miles from Petersburg.
June 29 — Arrived at Drewry's Bluff this morning.
Here we met our brigade, commanded by General
Daniels. The brigade has five regiments, all North
Carolina troops, composed of the 43d, 53d, 32d, 45th
and the 2d North Carolina battalions. When we got
to our brigade we were left at Drewry's Bluff and
the brigade marched on to Richmond, and we stayed
here until the 30th.
June 30 — Heard firing at Richmond. We are eight
miles from there, and in reserve.
July 1 — There is nothing new, only we can see the
lines of battle over the river. They are still fighting
July 4 — This is the day the Yankee general, Mc-
Clellan, promised to eat dinner in our capitol. He
did not, but numbers of his command did — that is, in
our prisons. But they did not get any turkey.
July 6 — We got orders to march this morning.
Left here with two days' rations of corn meal and
bacon in our haversacks. We got to Petersburg in
the evening — fifteen miles — after a hard march. It is
very warm, and we did not rest on the way, as it was
a forced march. We camped on Dunn's Hill.
July 7 — We return to our factory girls again — all
O. K., you bet.
July 27 — Had a few friends visit us from home, and
C 8 ]
moved camp twice. To-night we were ordered to
fall in line. Went to Petersburg, and there took the
cars for Weldon. On the road a dreadful accident oc-
curred. On the flat car that we were on, a captain of
the navy with us had his leg cut off by a sheet of iron
flying off the flat. Lieutenant McMatthews, Henry
Wortheim and myself were knocked down, but not
badly hurt. The captain died two days after.
July 31— Up to this time there is nothing new. We
are camped at Weldon.
August 1 — From date to the 4th — nothing. We
have a good camp.
August 5 — We received marching orders to-day.
We embarked on the train at Weldon, went down the
Seaboard road a distance of twenty-five miles, and
marched from there to Roberts' Chapel. Our com-
pany and Company D were the only ones that went.
We got there at 10 o'clock at night and laid in the
woods until morning.
August 6 — We fell in line and returned. We
marched to Boykins and took the cars to our regi-
ment again. This expedition was to capture Yankees
that are stealing negroes. When we got there they
Up to August 19 — Nothing new. We have a very
good time here by ourselves — get plenty to eat from
the ladies and visit them whenever we can get out
August 20 — Left here at 6 P.M. and arrived at
Petersburg at 3 o'clock in the morning. Took the
Diary of a Tar Heel
same bed that I had the last time — the sidewalk — and
the wall for my pillow. Katz, Hugh Sample, "Bat"
Harry, Lieutenant Belk and some others were left
August 21 — Left at 4 A.M. and arrived in Rich-
mond at 6 P.M. Marched to Camp Lee, two miles
from the city, and put up any tent we could get hold
of, as it was raining very hard and too dark to see.
We are all O. K. now.
August 22 — Sam Oppenheim, of the 44th North
Carolina Regiment, an old comrade of the 1st North
Carolina Regiment, came to see me. He is stationed
on the other side of the city.
August 23 — Went uptown to see my brother, Mor-
ris, of the 44th Georgia Regiment ; but his regiment
had already gone to Gordonsville, so I returned to
August 26— Up to date did not get half enough to
August 27 — Three of our companies got Enfield
August 28 — Ordered to Drewry's Bluff. We left
Richmond at 8 P.M. and got there at 2 A.M. We are
camping on the old oat patch, near our former camp.
August 29 — Lieutenant Belk, whom we left at Wel-
don, sick, returned to us to-day.
August 30 — Our company went to work to-day
throwing up breastworks.
August 31 — Still digging dirt.
September 1 — Wortheim and myself went to Half-
way Station, to get a box that was sent to us from
home, but it did not come.
September 9 — Up to to-day nothing new. Our reg-
iment was paid off to-day, we receiving one month's
wages — eleven dollars for a private, which I have the
honor to be.
September 18 — Nothing new, only plenty of bad
weather and hard work. We received marching orders
at 9 A.M. We arrived in Petersburg at 5 P.M.
Saw several friends there. Left Petersburg at 8
o'clock that night in cars for Wakefield. Arrived
there at 11 A.M.
September 19 — Left Wakefield at 9 P.M. and
marched twenty miles — laid in the woods without shel-
ter and it raining very hard. Therefore did not need
to wash myself in the morning.
September 20 — Resumed our march at 6 o'clock this
morning. Arrived at Blacks Church after three hours'
march, then turned about and tramped nine miles and
camped for the night at Joyner's Church.
September 21 — Left here at 6 P.M., marched nine
miles, and halted for dinner. Our company being
rear guard of the brigade, we had a hard time of it,
as the roads are very muddy and we had to keep up
all the stragglers. We reached Wakefield at 5 A.M.,
and laid in the woods and mud for the night.
September 22 — We laid here all day. Cars came
for us from Petersburg to-night and took us back.
Got there at 12 at night, marched one mile and camped
for the night.
Diary of a Tar Heel
September 23 — Left here this morning at 10 o'clock
and got to our old camp at 4 o'clock this evening.
This expedition was to strengthen Longstreet's forces
near Suffolk. We got there after he was relieved
and the siege of Suffolk abandoned.
September 27 — Up to to-day nothing new, only to-
day is my New Year (the Jewish New Year).
October — This month passed off with nothing new,
except Katz returned on the 7th, and Donau was dis-
charged. We are still on our old camp.
November 5 — There is nothing for me to write.
To-day Wortheim and myself went to Petersburg to
get a box that was sent from home, and while there
we had a very good time.
November 6 — We commenced to put up winter
quarters to-day. It is very cold and sleeting.
November 7 — It commenced to snow this morning
at 6 o'clock, and continued until one in the after-
noon. It is three inches deep. We got some whiskey
into camp, which tasted very good and made us for-
get the cold. The balance of this month passed off
very quietly. We are hard at work on our winter huts.
December 1 and 2 — We moved into our winter
quarters. They are very good and strong. There are
ten men in each hut.
December 3 — Katz and myself went to Petersburg
to-day. We met with friends, and the consequence
you can imagine. The headache we had next day
was caused by too much whiskey.
December 8 — My birthday to-day. I am a mart
[ 12 ]
twenty-one years old, but I must say that I have been
doing a man's duty before I was twenty-one, provid-
ing a soldier's duty is a man's. I spent to-day in
bringing mud to our palace for a fireplace.
December 13 — There was nothing to record up to
the 13th, but to-day had division review from 9 A.M.
until 5 P.M.
December 14 — Rumored that we will leave Virginia
for North Carolina.
December 15 — Sure enough. Got orders to cook
five days' rations. We started at 2 A.M. and got to
Petersburg at 8 o'clock that night. I ran the block-
ade, and went uptown and stayed all night and had
a very good time.
December 16 — I returned this morning and was not
missed. We left here with the cars at 8 A.M., and
got to Weldon at 3 P.M. on the 17th.
December 17 — Laid in an old field until 8 P.M., and
suffered a great deal from cold. We left here on flat
cars and rode all night on them. We arrived at
Goldsboro at 10 A.M. on the 18th. The ladies on the
road, especially those at Wilson, were very kind to
us. They gave us plenty to eat, which we were very
much in need of.
December 18 — We marched through town and lay
all night in an open field without tents. It is cer-
tainly bitter cold. The only fires we could make were
from the fence rails, as the woods were too far for us
to get to.
December 19 — We got away from the open field at
Diary of a Tar Heel
12 M., and went two miles out of town, and camped
in the woods. We met the Bethel regiment to-day.
I met quite a number of old friends and comrades of
my old company. We compared notes on soldiering.
We came to the conclusion that at Yorktown we were
playing soldier, but now there is no play in it. We
are expecting a fight every hour.
December 20 — Went uptown to-day on French
leave, and when I returned was put on guard duty
December 21 — I went to the creek to wash my
clothing and myself, and when I got back the water
had frozen on my head so that I was obliged to hold
my head by the fire so as to thaw it out. Wortheim's
eye» are so bad that he can hardly see. Sam Wilson
broke his shoulder blade.
December 25. — There is nothing new up to to-day,
Christmas. We moved our camp a little piece. Eigen-
brun came to see us to-day from home, and brought
me a splendid cake from Miss Clara Phile. This is
certainly a hard Christmas for us — bitter cold, rain-
ing and snowing all the time, and we have no tents.
The only shelter we have is a blanket spread over a
few poles, and gather leaves and put them in that
shelter for a bed.
December 26 — I got vaccinated to-day by Capt.
Harvey White. It was raining very hard, and we all
are as wet as dish rags.
December 31 — All is quiet up to to-day, the last of
the year. It is still very cold.
MONUMENT TO HENRY WYATT
The first Confederate Soldier killed in battle
The Year 1863
January 1 — This month we have done nothing but
move our camp once, and drill. Had to send all our
baggage away. Hereafter nothing more will be
hauled for us in wagons. There are rumors flying
about that we will soon leave here.
February 1 and 2 — There is nothing new, but cold,
February 4 — This morning, at 4 o'clock, we were
waked up by the pleasant sound of long roll. We
were ordered to get ready to march. It is very cold,
snow nine inches deep. We laid in Goldsboro until
noon, expecting to get cars to take us away, but were
then told we would have to march to Kinston. We
took up our line of march at 3 in the evening and
halted at dark. It is truly awful. The snow is very
deep and as cold as thunder. We marched eight
miles without resting. We then fixed our bed in the
snow and stole fodder for a bed and rails to make
fire. We took snow, put it in our kettles, and made
coffee. When I say coffee, I mean Confederate cof-
fee — parched corn — that is our coffee. Ate our corn
bread and bacon and retired to our couches and slept
as good if not better than Abe Lincoln.
[ 15 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
February 5 — Resumed our promenade at 7 this
morning, and for a change it is raining hard. There-
fore the snow is melting. Consequently, the roads are
nice and soft. Halted at 3 this evening — still rain-
ing. We made ourselves as comfortable as possible —
made a good fire to dry ourselves by, but the worst of
it is we have no rations, and the wagons are behind.
We went to sleep in our wet clothing, with a cup of
coffee as our supper. It rained and snowed all night.
February 6 — Nothing to eat yet. Wortheim, W.
Eagle and myself went out foraging, to buy some-
thing to eat. We got to one house and there was no
one at home, but in the yard there were two chickens,
which we captured, for we were afraid they would
bite us. We went to the next house and ate our
breakfast. One of the ladies asked us where we got
those chickens. I told her that we bought them at
the house before we got there. She told us she lived
there and that there was nobody at home. I then told
her the truth, paid her for them and left. The next
house we got to we bought a ham, a peck of meal, a
peck of sweet potatoes and some turnips. We took
dinner in this house. We then returned to camp. We
had a good reception from our mess, as they had still
nothing to eat.
February 7 — We could not march yesterday, as the
streams were too high from the recent rains and snow.
We left to-day at 12 M., and got one day's rations,
hard enough to fell a bull. Marched on the railroad
track all the afternoon. The main road was impas-
[ 16 ]
sable. We got to Kinston at 4 in the afternoon, and
made camp in a swamp, two and a half miles out of
town. We had nothing to eat, but slept good for all
February 8 — Wortheim and myself went uptown to
get something to eat. We got corn bread and bacon.
On our road back to camp we bought four more
dodgers of corn bread and gave it to our mess com-
panions who did not go uptown. Our regiment moved
on the other side of town in an old pine thicket.
February 9 — We established a regular camp here.
This last march has been a very hard one, and only a
distance of thirty miles. But it took us from Wednes-
day to Saturday, through snow, rain and mud ankle-
deep and without rations. Kinston is a perfect ruin,
as the Yankees have destroyed everything they could
barely touch, but it must at one time have been a very
pretty town — but now nothing scarcely but chimneys
are left to show how the Yankees are trying to recon-
struct the Union.
February 13 — Nothing new. We have been fixing
our camps. Our company has built log huts, from
two to three feet high, and then put our tents over
them — building a chimney to each hut or tent, and we
are very comfortable. We got orders to cook two
days' rations, and be ready to march in two hours, but
did not have to go — in fact, nothing new until the
February 25 — Henry Wortheim was sent home on a
sick furlough, as he is very bad off.
Diary of a Tar Heel
February 26 — Two men out of our regiment were
whipped for desertion. They were undressed all but
pants and shoes, tied to a post, and each given thirty-
nine lashes on their bare backs. The balance of this
month nothing new, only very cold.
March 5 — Up to to-day there is nothing worth re-
cording, although we are getting black as negroes on
account of our burning green pine.
March 6 — Several of us out of our company went
to Kinston and the battlefield. The Yankees are very
poorly buried, as we saw several heads, hands and
feet sticking out of the ground, where the rain had
washed the dirt off of them.
March 12 — We have had orders several times for
the last six days to march, and a part of our brigade
has had a fight. But this morning we took up our
march at 5 o'clock. I saw Gen. D. H. Hill on the
road and spoke to him, as well as his adjutant. They
are friends from home and comrades of our first
North Carolina regiment. We marched twenty miles
and halted for the night — laid in line of battle all
night with arms by our side.
March 13 — Resumed our march at 8 this morning,
got eight miles, when we got to our extreme picket
posts. They told us the Yankees were one mile and
a quarter from us. Then we marched half a mile
further, when our artillery commenced the fight. It
kept on all day, but very light. We drove in their
pickets and advanced our line until dark. We are
eight miles from Newbern — marched eleven miles.
March 14 — This morning, at daybreak, cannonading
was heard by us from General Pettigrew's line, which
is on our left flank. We immediately fell into line of
battle, our artillery opened fire, then we infantry ad-
vanced our line on the Yankees. We halted in an
old field and had for a breastwork a rail fence. We
fought for four hours — hot at times. We had a num-
ber killed and wounded. The enemy fell back on their
stronghold — Newbern. This battle is called the Bat-
tle of Deep Gully, as it was fought on that stream.
We then took up our march again for Kinston. We
got eleven miles and halted for the night. Our com-
pany was the rear guard of the brigade.
March 15 — Laid here all day, with two crackers for
our rations, and these we got at night.
March 16 — A picket came in this morning and re-
ported the enemy advancing. We were put in line of
battle to receive them, and after marching one mile
up the road to get to our brigade we were put at the
extreme left of our line, and made breastworks out of
rotten logs. Stayed here one hour, when another
picket came and reported them ten miles away. So
we resumed our march for camp and got there at 7
o'clock — twenty-one miles to-day. Tom Notter,
Aaron Katz and myself pressed into service to-day a
donkey and a cart with a negro, who took us to Kin-
ston. Each of us drove at times, and I was fortu-
nate enough to stall in a mudhole. We had to get out
and lift the cart and donkey to dry ground again.
Thus ends the march and fight at Deep Gully.
[ 19 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
March 20 — Katz went home to-day on a furlough.
Nothing new up to the 23d.
March 23 — We had a man whipped to-day in our
regiment for desertion.
March 24 — Commenced marching this morning, got
seventeen miles and halted. Laid here in the woods
until the 27th. Went to several houses and had a good
time with ladies and eatables up to the 29th.
March 29 — Here still, but positively don't know
where we are.
March 30 — Left this morning at 5 o'clock, marched
fifteen miles. Waded clay-bottom swamps three-
quarters of a mile long. This is in Pitt County, North
Carolina. We then camped in the woods and made
fires to dry ourselves with.
March 31 — Left at 7 this morning, marched six
miles, waded several creeks, and arrived at Swift
Creek at 11. This is a small village. We camp here
for the night.
April 1 — Left here on the Little Washington dirt
road at 7 this morning. Marched seventeen miles and
halted three miles from Washington. This is a Yan-
kee post. Heard firing all day, and we are ordered to
keep our cartridge boxes on us and our guns by our
sides, as we may move any moment.
April 2 — Our regiment was sent on picket this
morning at daylight — one mile from camp and two
miles from the enemy. Companies B and G are on the
left, A and D on the right, F and I in the center. We
are within hailing distance of the Yankee line of pick-
ets. There is not much firing. Tom Tiotter and I
are on the color guard. We have nothing to do if we
don't want to, except stay with the colors. So this
evening at 4 o'clock we went as near the Yankees as
we dared, to see the town of Washington. Saw the
place, their breastworks and their camps very plainly.
We then returned and slept on our arms all night —
that is, we tried. to sleep, but could not for the infer-
nal noise from the owls that are in the swamps around
April 3 — Little Washington is on Tar River, and
as one of the Yankee gunboats was trying to get in,
one of our cannon gave them a ball, which caused
heavy firing all day, and, in fact, the shells came very
close to our flag, which made us dodge pretty smart.
We have Washington besieged. At 8 o'clock to-night
Colonel Owens called for volunteers to go as near the
Yankees as they could, to see what they were doing.
Tom Tiotter and myself went. We got to within two
hundred yards of Washington, when we were com-
pelled to halt, as we were near the bridge, where we
could hear the Yankee sentinels walking their beats
very plainly — so we returned to camp and reported.
April 4 — Firing at intervals all day. The reserve
was sent to the river to support our artillery. The
colors went with them. It is raining hard. We laid
in line two and a half hours in an old field. It is very
cold. The Yankees are firing all the time. Then
the 43d Regiment came and relieved us. Katz came
[ 21 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
in to-day and reported Henry Wortheim dead — he
died Monday, March 30.
April 5 — Everything- is quiet on our line to-day.
April 6 — A little firing to-day. Went to the river
to throw up breastworks. Worked all night. We put
up one piece of cannon right on the river bank, but
had to work all night in the swamp to do so. Wet:
carried sandbags for breastworks to protect the artil-
April 7 — To-day the firing was very heavy. We
hit the Yankee gunboat again to-day, and made the
dust fly out of their breastworks.
April 8 — This morning Tom Tiotter, Katz and my-
self went with Captain White to meet three Yankees
with a flag of truce ; but they would not come half
way, so Colonel Owens ordered us back. We then —
we three — went to our siege-gun and saw the town
very plainly. They fired at us while we were there.
The fire was returned, and we could see the Yankees
April 9 — We were relieved this morning by the 32d
Regiment, and marched to Bellevue, where the balance
of our brigade is. At 11 o'clock to-night we were or-
dered to march. We went fifteen miles. There was
a fight there to-day. Marched all night without rest-
April 10 — Got to our line at 6 this morning. The
Yankees had fallen back. They had nineteen regi-
ments and twenty-one pieces of artillery. They left:
in a hurry. One of their colonels was killed and I
don't know how many men. We left Blount Creek
Bridge at 4 this evening, marched nine miles on our
way back to Bellevue. We met the Bethel regiment,
and I met several friends of my old company.
April 13 — Up to date they are firing at Fort Hill
and Washington all the time.
April 14 — Nothing.
April 15 — Raining very hard. We have a blanket
spread over poles to keep us dry. We got orders to
march this evening. Went five miles through mud
and water, and it raining like fury. I shall long re-
member this march, as well as a few others of my
company. We fell in the mud several times, and were
certainly beautiful objects to look at with our suits
of mud, for we were completely covered with it.
April 16 — At 7 this morning we resumed our
march. Went two miles, halted a half hour, then
turned about and went to our old camp, but again
were ordered back at 2 P.M. to our picket posts, one
mile from Washington. As we got there the Yan-
kees gave us a good reception in shot, shell and mus-
ketry, but all the damage they did was to rail fences
and perhaps a few owls that are plentiful in the
swamps. Our line is on the edge of the swamp. They
shelled heavy all night, but no lives were lost on our
side. At 8 P.M. our pickets fired on them, but they
did not respond. We laid here until 2 at night, when
we went to Bellevue under fire from the enemy. We
stayed here the balance of the night.
Diary of a Tar Heel
April 17 — At daylight this morning our company
was ordered to go on picket at Shingle Landing, five
miles from Bellevue. I asked Colonel Morehead to
let me go with them, but he refused, and said I should
stay with the colors, but I went without his permis-
sion. In a march of five miles we waded through
three miles of swamp, knee-deep. We are in a devil
of a position. The enemy can cut us off from our
command easily, as we cannot return, except through
the swamp, which of course would be very slow
progress. At 4 this evening we were recalled, and
met our regiment on the march and fell in. Colonel
Morehead did not miss me from the colors. We
marched seven miles and halted for the night.
April 18 — Left at 9 this morning, and got to Green-
ville at 5 o'clock — eleven miles. This is a fine coun-
try, but hilly and hard marching. This is the end of
the siege of Washington. We were there sixteen days,
but could not draw the enemy out of their works.
April 19 — Nothing to-day but rest, which we
needed very much.
April 20 — Went on picket this morning to the south
side of the town, across the river, but did not go on
picket. Our company and Company G supported two
pieces of artillery. I was again refused permission
by Morehead to go with my company, but I went all
April 21 — Nothing doing.
April 22 — Ordered to our brigade at 12 M.
April 23 — Raining hard all day and night. No
shelter. We got as wet as drowned cats.
April 24 — This morning I was detailed by Colonel
Owens to go to Wilson, N. C, to get the baggage for
our officers. Left at 3 A.M., got to Tarboro at 7
P.M. This is a very pretty town. Stayed here until
3 and took the cars to Rocky Mount. Got there at
5, left at 7, and got to Wilson at 8 on the morning
of the 25th. Got my baggage and left at 3 P.M. Ar-
rived at Rocky Mount at 4. Saw some fun with a
girl and an old woman. The young one had stole a
petticoat from the old one, and was compelled to take
it off and return it in the presence of at least fifty
men. Left at 8, got to Tarboro at a quarter after
April 26 — Left here this morning and took the
same route that I came by. Our boat got to Green-
ville at 10 A.M. My regiment in my absence has
gone twelve miles across the river to a place called
Pacatolus. I followed them in a buggy, and got there
at 4 P.M.
April 2y — Left here at 3 this morning. Got to
Greenville at 6 A.M., stayed a quarter of an hour,
and marched to the crossroads, nine miles from town;
got there at 6 P.M.
April 28 — Turned about this morning at 7, got to
Greenville at 10, and went to our former camp. Then
got orders to return to Pacatolus in the morning.
April 29 — We left this morning. The regiment
Diary of a Tar Heel
was two miles on the road when we got orders to re-
turn. But Tom Tiotter and myself marched ahead
of the regiment, and had got four miles before we had
found out that the regiment was not in our rear.
When we got back we were laughed at for our smart-
April 30 — Laid in camp and rested.
May 1 — We left here this morning at thirty minutes
after 4 for Kinston. Marched eleven miles without
May 2 — Resumed our march at 6 A.M., and reached
Kinston at 8 P.M. — twenty-four miles to-day.
May 3 — We camped one mile from town. We left
here on the 25th day of March, and returned May 2.
Went through a campaign of twenty-seven days. In
that time we had Washington besieged sixteen days.
The balance of the time we were marching and coun-
ter-marching in all kinds of weather, and very often
without anything to eat.
May 4 and 5 — Nothing.
May 6 — Left here at 12 M. for Core Creek, marched
nine miles and halted. Raining hard, and we got well
soaked. The rain ran down our faces all night, so
we did not have to wash our faces on the morning
of the 7th.
May 7 — Resumed our march at 8 A.M., got ten
miles, and halted within one mile of the creek. We
waded Gum Swamp, stayed there three hours, and
turned about — marched nine miles to-night. This ex-
pedition was to tear up the Newbern and Kinston Rail-
road, and also bring some ladies and old men out of
the Yankee lines, for they had been driven out of
Newbern. There were about seventy in all. They
were, of course, Southern people who would not take
the oath of allegiance to the United States Govern-
ment, and therefore were driven out of their homes.
May 8— We left here at 8 A.M., to return to Kin-
ston, and got there at 3 P.M. — ten miles — awful road.
Waded through mud, water and sand the whole way.
My feet are cut up pretty badly.
May 9 and 10 — Resting.
May 11 — We moved our camp to the north side
of town. Then we were marched to an open field
this afternoon, and drawn up in line to see two men
shot for desertion. After they were shot, we marched
"by them and saw one was hit six times and the other
four. Their coffins were by their sides, right close
to their graves, so that they could see it all.
May 17 — Up to to-day nothing. But this morning
at 4 we were ordered to cook up all our rations, and
be ready to march in one hour. We left Kinston by
rail at 12 M. Got to Goldsboro at 3, went through
to Weldon, left here at 5 P.M., and got to Peters-
burg, Va., on the morning of the 18th; left there at
6 P.M. Katz and myself went uptown — ate two sup-
pers. Had a very good time while in town. We
camped all night on Dunn's Hill.
May 19 — Left here at 5 this morning, got to Rich-
mond at 8, and are stationed at Camp Lee. We will
Tiave to march to Fredericksburg. Our brigade is
[ 27 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
transferred to the Army of Northern Virginia. Wil-
liam Cochran, myself and several of our company ran
the blockade to-night, went uptown to a theatre, and
got back to camp at 2 o'clock. We had a fine time
May 21 — Left this morning, marched twenty-one
miles, halted at 5.30. It is a very hilly country, warm
May 22 — Marched twenty miles to-day, and halted
at 6 P.M.
May 23 — Marched fifteen miles and halted. On our
to-day's march we saw any amount of dead horses,
which did not smell altogether like cologne.
May 24 — Laid here all day, it being Sunday.
May 25 — Resumed our march this morning at 6.
Got six miles and halted. We pitched our camp here
on a hill two miles from Fredericksburg.
May 26 and 27 — Rested. I went to see my brother
Morris, who belongs to Dowles' Brigade, 44th Geor-
gia Regiment. Did not see him, as he was on picket.
May 28 — Morris came to see me to-day. We are
both in the same division and corps. Our corps is
commanded by General Ewell.
May 29 — Had a general review to-day. General
Rodes is our division commander. He and General
Lee reviewed us. I see a great change in the appear-
ance of General Lee. He looks so much older than
when 'I saw him at Yorktown. Then his hair was
black. Now he is a gray-headed old man. We have
five brigades in our division. The commander of
my brigade is General Daniels, of North Carolina.
One brigade of Georgians is commanded by General
Dowles. Iverson, of North Carolina, has another bri-
gade ; also General Ramseur, of North Carolina, has
a brigade ; and General Battle, of Alabama, has a
brigade. Our corps is composed of three divisions,
ours by General Rodes, one by General Early, and the
other by Gen. A. Johnson.
May 30 — We see the Yankees in balloons every day,
reconnoitering our lines.
June 1 and 2 — Nothing new.
June 3 — Saw my brother Morris several times.
June 4 — Got orders to cook three days' rations im-
mediately. We left our camp at 3 this morning,
marched fourteen miles and halted. We march one
hour and rest ten minutes.
June 5 — Marched until 4 o'clock this evening —
twenty miles to-day.
June 6 — Marched five miles and halted for the day.
June 7 — Left at 5 A.M., got to Culpepper Court
House 3 P.M., and marched four miles on the east
side of town. Twenty miles to-day. We waded Rapi-
dan River, which is forty yards wide, two feet deep
and very swift.
June 8 — Stayed here all day.
June 9 — We were ordered to Beverly Ford, to sup-
port Gen. Jeb Stewart, who is engaging the Yan-
kees, and they are having a very hard cavalry fight.
Got here in a roundabout way, and formed in line of
Diary of a Tar Heel
battle, with two lines of skirmishers in front. When
we got to the Army of Northern Virginia we were told
that each company must furnish one skirmisher out of
every six men, and there was a call for volunteers for
that service. So I left the colors and went as a skir-
misher, whose duty it is in time of battle to go in front
of the line and reconnoitre and engage the enemy
until a general engagement, then we fall in line with
balance of the army. As soon as the enemy saw that
the cavalry were reinforced by infantry, they fell
back. This was altogether a cavalry fight. We took
quite a number of prisoners, and camped two miles
from the battlefield. We marched twelve miles to-
June 10 — Left here at 2 P.M., marched until 8
o'clock to-night — twelve miles.
June 11 — Resumed our march at 5 A.M., passed
over three creeks that formed the Rappahannock
River, passed through a town called Flint Hill, and
camped one mile on the north side of the town.
Marched sixteen miles to-day.
June 12 — Left at 5 A.M., marched over part of
the Blue Ridge, and crossed the head of the Rap-
pahannock River- — eighteen miles to-day. We marched
through Front Royal, where the ladies treated us
very good. Camped one mile north side of town, and
waded the Shaninoar, both prongs.
June 13 — Marched to Berry ville, a Yankee post.
Heard firing before we got there. We took the left
flank a half mile this side of town, and marched to
the Winchester Turnpike. We then formed in line
of battle with sharpshooters in front. We gave the
Rebel yell and charged. But when we got to their
breastworks the birds had flown. They did not take
their nests with them. Their camp, with all their
cooking utensils, quartermaster and commissary
stores, were all left in our hands. They were evi-
dently cooking a meal, for plenty of pots full of eat-
ables were still on the fire when we got into their
camp. We ate up all we could, and filled our haver-
sacks and pushed on four miles further, and halted
for the night. It is raining very hard, and there is,
of course, no shelter for us.
June 14 — Left at 7 A.M., passed through Smithfield
and Bunker Hill. The Yankees are still retreating in
our front, on their way to Martinsburg, our own
destination. We got there about 9 o'clock at night
and drove them through the town, and, in fact, we
felt like driving the devil out of his stronghold, as
this was a very warm day. We had to march in
quick time all day, a distance of twenty-five miles.
Therefore we were not in the best of humor. This
is a good sized town.
June 15 — Left here at 11 A.M., and got to the Poto-
mac river at dusk, a distance of twelve miles. We
have as yet been very fortunate. Have driven the
enemy from the Rapidan to the Potomac, captured
prisoners, arms, camps, quartermaster and commis-
sary stores, and the Yankees were any moment as
[ 31 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
strong in numbers as we, with the advantage of
having breastworks to fight behind. Still they always
ran at our appearance.
June 1 6 — Resting to-day.
June 17 — We crossed the Potomac River to-day at
1 P.M., and camped in Williamsport, Maryland, on
the banks of the Potomac. Two miles to-day. The
river is knee-deep.
June 18 — The people are mixed in their sympathies,
some Confederates and some Yankees.
June 19 — Left at 8 A.M., and seven miles took us to
Hagerstown, Md. Here the men greeted us very
shabby, but the ladies quite the reverse. This town
has 5,000 inhabitants, and is a very pretty town. We
camped on the Antietam.
June 20 and 21 — Raining hard.
June 22 — Left this morning at 8 o'clock, got to
Middleburg, Pa., at 11, passed through it, and got to
Green Castle at half past one. Eleven miles to-day.
The people seemed downhearted, and showed their ha-
tred to us by their glum looks and silence, and I am
willing to swear that no prayers will be offered in
this town for us poor, ragged rebels.
June 23 — Here all day. Tom Tiotter and myself
went out to buy something to eat, but when we came
to a house, they would close their doors in our faces,
or let us knock and not open. We got the ear of
one or two ladies, and after proving to them that we
were not wild animals nor thieves, they gave us what
we wanted, but would not take pay for anything.
June 24 — Left here this morning, got to Chambers-
burg at 12 M. Went three miles on the north side of
town on picket — 14 miles to-day. We passed through
Marion, a small village. Chambersburg is a very fine
place, 10,000 inhabitants, but nary a smile greeted us
as we marched through town. There are a plenty
of men here — a pity they are not rebels, and in our
ranks. This city is in Franklin County, Cumberland
Valley. We were woke up in the middle of the night
and marched off; waded a river which was so cold
that it woke us up. Passed through Greenville to-day
at dawn. This town has, I should judge, about
5,000 inhabitants. Nine miles to-day.
June 25 — Marched on, passed through Leesburg,
Canada, Hockinsville, and Centerville, all small vil-
lages. We got to Carlisle, Pa., at sundown. Marched
21 miles to-day. This city is certainly a beautiful
place. It has 8,000 inhabitants, and we were treated
very good by the ladies. They thought we would
do as their soldiers do, burn every place we passed
through, but when we told them the strict orders of
General Lee they were rejoiced. Our regiment was
provost guard in the city, but were relieved by the
2 1 st Georgia Regiment, and we went to camp at the
U. S. barracks. So far we have lived very good in the
enemy's country. We stayed here until the 30th,
when we took the Baltimore pike road, crossed South
Mountain at Holly Gap, passed through Papertown
and Petersburg. We then left the Pike and took the
Gettysburg road — 17 miles to-day. This has been a
Diary of a Tar Heel
hard day for us, as we were the rear guard of the
division, and it was very hot, close and very dusty,
and a terrible job to keep the stragglers up.
July i — We left camp at 6 A.M., passed through
Heidelsburg and Middleton. At the latter place we
heard firing in the direction of Gettysburg. We were
pushed forward after letting the wagon trains get in
our rear. We got to Gettysburg at i P.M., 15 miles.
We were drawn up in line of battle about one mile
south of town, and a little to the left of the Lutheran
Seminary. We then advanced to the enemy's line of
battle in double quick time. We had not gotten more
than 50 paces when Norman of our company fell dead
by my side. Katz was going to pick him up. I
stopped him,. as it is strictly forbidden for anyone to
help take the dead or wounded off the field except the
ambulance corps. We then crossed over a rail fence,
where our Lieutenant McMatthews and Lieutenant
Alexander were both wounded. That left us with a
captain and one lieutenant. After this we got into
battle in earnest, and lost in our company very heavily,
both killed and wounded. This fight lasted four hours
and a half, when at last we drove them clear out of
town, and took at least 3,000 prisoners. They also lost
very heavily in killed and wounded, which all fell into
our hands. After the fight our company was ordered
to pick up all straggling Yankees in town, and bring
them together to be brought to the rear as prisoners.
One fellow I took up could not speak one word of
English, and the first thing he asked me in German
was "Will I get my pay in prison?" After we had
them all put up in a pen we went to our regiment and
rested. Major Iredell, of our regiment, came to me
and shook my hand, and also complimented me for
action in the fight. At dusk I was about going to
hunt up my brother Morris, when he came to me.
Thank God, we are both safe as yet. We laid all night
among the dead Yankees, but they did not disturb
our peaceful slumbers.
July 2 — Our division was in reserve until dark, but
our regiment was supporting a battery all day. We
lost several killed and wounded, although we had no
chance to fire — only lay by a battery of artillery and
be shot at. The caisson of the battery we were sup-
porting was blown up and we got a big good sprin-
kling of the wood from it. Just at dark we were sent
to the front under terrible cannonading. Still, it was
certainly a beautiful sight. It being dark, we could
see the cannon vomit forth fire. Our company had
to cross a rail fence. It gave way and several of our
boys were hurt by others walking over them. We
laid down here a short time, in fact no longer than 10
minutes, when I positively fell asleep. The cannon-
ading did not disturb me. One of the boys shook me
and told me Katz was wounded by a piece of a shell
striking him on the side, and he was sent to the rear.
We went on to the Baltimore Turnpike until 3 in the
morning of the 3d.
July 3 — When under a very heavy fire, we were
ordered on Culps Hill, to the support of Gen. A.
Diary of a Tar Heel
Johnson. Here we stayed all day — no, here, I may
say, we melted away. We were on the brow of one
hill, the enemy on the brow of another. We charged
on them several times, but of course, running down
our hill, and then to get to them was impossible, and
every time we attempted it we came back leaving some
of our comrades behind. Here our Lieutenant Belt
lost his arm. We have now in our company a captain.
All of our lieutenants are wounded. We fought here
until 7 P.M., when what was left of us was withdrawn
and taken to the first day's battlefield. At the com-
mencement of this fight our Brigade was the strongest
in our division, but -she is not now. We lost the most
men, for we were in the fight all the time, and I have
it from Colonel Owens that our regiment lost the most
in the Brigade. I know that our company went in
the fight with 60 men. When we left Culps Hill there
were 16 of us that answered to the roll call. The
balance were all killed and wounded. There were 12
sharpshooters in our company and now John Cochran
and myself are the only ones that are left. This day
none will forget, that participated in the fight. It was
truly awful how fast, how very fast, did our poor
boys fall by our sides — almost as fast as the leaves
that fell as cannon and musket balls hit them, as they
flew on their deadly errand. You could see one with
his head shot off, others cut in two, then one with
his brain oozing out, one with his leg off, others shot
through the heart. Then you would hear some poor
friend or foe crying for water, or for "God's sake"
to kill him. You would see some of your comrades,
shot through the leg, lying between the lines, asking
his friends to take him out, but no one could get to
his relief, and you would have to leave him there,
perhaps to die, or, at best, to become a prisoner. Our
brigade was the only one that was sent to Culps Hill
to support General Johnson. In our rapid firing to- '
day my gun became so hot that the ramrod would
not come out, so I shot it at the Yankees, and picked
up a gun from the ground, a gun that some poor
comrade dropped after being shot. I wonder if it hit
a Yankee; if so, I pity him. Our regiment was in a
very exposed position at one time to-day, and our
General Daniels ordered a courier of his to bring us
from the hill. He was killed before he got to us.
The General sent another. He was also killed before
he reached us. Then General Daniels would not order
any one, but called for volunteers. Capt. Ed. Stitt,
of Charlotte, one of his aides, responded, and he took
us out of the exposed position.
July 4 — We laid on the battlefield of the first day,
this the fourth day of July. No fighting to-day, but
we are burying the dead. They have been lying on
the field in the sun since the first day's fight; it be-
ing dusty and hot, the dead smell terribly. The funny
part of it is, the Yankees have all turned black. Sev-
eral of our company, wounded, have died. Katz is
getting along all right. The battle is over, and al-
though we did not succeed in pushing the enemy out
of their strong position, I am sure thev have not any-
Diary of a Tar Heel
thing to boast about. They have lost at least as many
in killed and wounded as we have. We have taken
more prisoners from them than they have from us.
If that is not the case, why did they lay still all to-
day and see our army going to the rear? An army
that has gained a great victory follows it up while
its enemy is badly crippled ; but Meade, their com-
mander, knows he has had as much as he gave, at
least, if not more. As yet I have not heard a word
from my brother Morris since the first day's fight.
July 5 — Left this morning at 5 o'clock. Only
marched ten miles to-day. The enemy being in our
rear, and skirmishing very strong.
July 6 — Our company was ordered out as skirmish-
ers to-day, as our regular skirmish corps was broken
up during the fight. We were the rear of the army,
and therefore had a very hard job before us. Fight-
ing all day in falling back we certainly had fun. We
were close enough to the enemy to hear their com-
mands. We would hold them in check and give them
a few rounds, then fall back again. They would
then advance until we would make a stand, fight
again, and so it was until we reached Fairfield, six
miles from Gettysburg. I don't think there were
many lost on either side in this skirmish. We crossed
South Mountain at Monteray Gap. When we came to
the above town I pressed into service a citizen's coat,
in this way: We were ordered to rest, and, as usual,
we would sit on fences and lay about the road. Some
of the boys jumped on an old hog pen. It broke
through. They fell in, and, lo and behold, there were
boxes of clothing, dresses, shawls, blankets, and, in
fact, everything in the line of wearing apparel. I, be-
ing a little fellow, crawled through some of the boys'
legs and captured the coat. If the fool citizen would
have left his things in his house they would have
been safe, but to put it in our way was too much for
us to leave behind. We also passed through Water-
boro, and Waynesboro, Pa., where the Maryland line
commences. We then passed through Latisburg, and
halted in Hagerstown, Md v on the evening of the
7th. We marched yesterday and all night up to 11
o'clock — twenty-four miles.
July 8 — We are resting, and, goodness knows, we
need it very much. I sold my coat for twenty dollars
and a gray jacket. We lost in the last fight in our
company eleven killed and twenty-six wounded ; three
of the latter will not live, and nine of our number be-
came prisoners, besides the wounded. Our three lieu-
tenants are all wounded and prisoners. Katz is also
a prisoner. Nothing further up to the 10th.
July 10 — Moved four and a half miles on the other
side of town. We have fortified ourselves here.
July 11 — Orders read out to-day from our father,
R. E. Lee, that we would fight the enemy once more
on their own soil, as they were now in our front. That
order got to them, and fulfilled its mission, as we
were then on our way to the Potomac. They still
thinking we could not cross the river, because the
river was very high from the recent rains, and we
Diary of a Tar Heel
had but one pontoon bridge. At 10 in the night we
formed in line of battle, got to our position, when
our regiment was ordered to support a battery. Laid
on our arms all night.
July 12 — Went back to our brigade this morning.
Skirmishing very heavy on the left and center.
July 13 — News came to us to-day that Vicksburg^
had fallen on the 4th. Heavy skirmishing, fighting
all day. Our brigade again acted as the rear of our
corps, our regiment being its rear. We started our
retreat at dark and marched to Williamsport, six
miles, through mud and slush ankle-deep, and raining
very hard. We marched one mile to the right of and
crossed the Potomac at midnight, after wading;
through the canal, which we destroyed. The river
was up to my chin, and very swift. We crossed in
fours, for protection, as otherwise we could not have
crossed. Our cartridge boxes we carried around our
necks to keep the powder dry. On the south bank
tar was poured so that we would not slip back in the-
river, as the mud was very slick. J. Engle, of our
company, was stuck in until some of the boys pulled
him out. We went six miles further, and I honestly
believe more of us were asleep on our night's march
than awake. But, still, all kept up, for the rear was
prison. We then halted, made fire to dry ourselves,
just as day was breaking on the morning of the 14th.
July 14 — The roads are so bad that it is hard work
to trudge along. I stuck in the mud several times,
and lost one shoe in a mud hole, but of course took
It out again. One consolation we have got, it is rain-
ing so hard that the mud is washed off our clothing,
therefore they were not soiled too bad. But the devil
of it is there is no blacking to shine our shoes with.
Marched sixteen miles and halted. We are now, thank
God, on Confederate soil, but oh, how many of our
dear comrades have we left behind. We can never
forget this campaign. We had hard marching, hard
righting, suffered hunger and privation, but our gen-
eral officers were always with us, to help the weary
soldier carry his gun, or let him ride. In a fight
they were with us to encourage. Many a general have
I seen walk and a poor sick private riding his horse,
and our father, Lee, was scarcely ever out of sight
when there was danger. We could not feel gloomy
when we saw his old gray head uncovered as he
would pass us on the march, or be with us in a fight.
I care not how weary or hungry we were, when we
saw him we gave that Rebel yell, and hunger and
wounds would be forgotten.
July 15 — We marched five miles to-day, and were
compelled to halt, as our wagon trains had to get in
our front. I and two of our mess killed three tur-
keys, took them with us to one mile from Martins-
burg, Va., where we camped, and the bones of those
turkeys were left behind.
July 16 — Left this morning at 7; marched to
Darkesville, eight miles.
July 17 — Raining very hard to-day, and we are rest-
Diary of a Tar Heel
July 20 — Went on picket to-day, stayed there one
hour, and was ordered back. Got to camp, and found
'our brigade gone. We marched to Martinsburg,
halted at 10 at night, two miles from town — ten miles
July 21 — Went through town at 5 this morning, to
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, with Johnson's di-
vision and part of Hampton's Legion, to tear up the
railroad. We destroyed six miles of it and returned
to our camp at Darkesville — fifteen miles to-day.
July 22 — Left this morning at 5, marched through
Winchester three miles, and halted.
July 23 — Left at 5 this morning, went through
Front Royal — seventeen miles to-day. Waded the
south and north prongs of the Shenandoah River. We
then took the road to Mananas Gap, marched three
miles, when we met the enemy and had brisk firing
until dark. Their line is very strong. They advanced
in two lines in very fine order. When they got within
range of our guns we opened on them, and they scat-
tered like bluebirds. We had a beautiful view of this
fight, as we are on the mountain. Neither of the
armies can move without being seen by the other.
Our corps of sharpshooters has been formed again
since a few days ago. We were sent to the support
of the other corps. We were within twenty yards of
the enemy's line until midnight, when we fell back
in good order.
July 24 — Marched two miles up Chester Gap, when
we were about faced and marched through Front
Royal again. We here took the Strasburg road at
daylight. We resumed our march, and halted at 3
in the evening. We have been on a forced march
three days and nights, waded rivers, fought skir-
mishes, and marched in that time forty-five miles. We
are camped in an apple orchard in a village called
July 25 — Left this morning at 7 o'clock, halted at 3
in the afternoon — sixteen miles.
July 26 — Rested to-day. William Eagle and myself
went up the Blue Ridge to gather berries, and were
lost in the woods for one hour.
July 27 — Left this morning at 5, crossed the Blue
Ridge at Thornton Gap. We camped one mile from
Sparrowsville. Marched thirteen miles to-day.
July 28 — Left at 6 this morning, marched ten miles
and halted on the mountain.
July 29 — Left at 7, marched until 3, camped one
mile from Madison Court House. Marched- ten miles
July 30 — Still in camp. Hugh Sample and myself
were out on a forage and milked a cow in his hat, the
only thing we had.
July 31 — We left here to-night, marched seven
miles, and halted.
August 1 — Resumed our march at 4 this morning,
and got to Orange Court House, fourteen miles. It
is a very hot day, and there were several men fell
dead on the road from sunstroke. We rested here un-
til the 4th.
Diary of a Tar Heel
August 4 — Left our camp, marched three miles, one
mile on the south side of town.
August ii — Nothing up to to-day. This, I sup-
pose, is to be our regular camp, as we have com-
menced to drill again.
August 12 — We had a very severe storm to-day,
which killed two men and hurt several of our bri-
gade. It tore up trees and played smash in general.
August 23 — They have commenced to give fur-
loughs, one to every two companies.
August 24 — Was on guard this morning, but Ser-
geant Hugh Reid sent for me, and detailed me, with
some men out of every regiment in our brigade, to
hunt deserters. Si Wolf and myself, out of our com-
pany. We left camp at 3 this evening, marched two
miles up the railroad, and took the cars to Gordons-
ville. Got there at 4. It is a small place, but one of
importance, as all our supplies for the army from
Richmond come from this station.
August 25 — Took the cars at 5 A.M. and got to
Keswick, a depot on the Stanton road. We left here
after staying one hour, and took our posts in the
woods. As we are about twenty men, with one lieu-
tenant in command, we made no camp, but stayed
about here and reported every time there was any
news about deserters. Wolf and myself went out in
the country to houses that we were told harbored de-
serters. We passed ourselves off as such, and were
well received, and got some valuable information.
They told us that the deserters were in the woods.
We then returned to our companions, and got well
soaked, as it was raining very hard. Stayed in a barn
August 26 — We stayed in the woods all day, but at
night went out scouting for deserters, but did not
August 27 — Returned at 7 this morning, went out
again at dark, went through four houses of bad re-
pute, but found not one deserter. Went twelve miles
August 28 — We moved this evening, and I stayed
in a gentleman's house all night with Wolf.
August 29 — Returned to our companions this morn-
ing at 10 o'clock.
August 30 — Left at 5 in the morning. We hunted
through the cliffs for several hours and caught one
deserter. Several of our men and myself dined in a
widow lady's house. There were quite a number of
ladies there, and we had a very pleasant time. Then
we went to Mr. Bell's and had supper there. From
there we went to Mr. Wheeler's and stayed all night.
August 31 — Went to Mr. Watkin's, took dinner
there, and stayed all day. Had a very pleasant time
with his daughter, Miss Annie.
September 1 — To-day we went on a general hunt in
full force. We went into a house where we sus-
pected there was a deserter. We hunted through all
the out-houses, then went to the house, and the lady
stronglv denied there being any one there, but would
[ 45 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
not give us permission to look. We then searched the
house; but found no one. I then proposed that we go
in the loft. She objected again. But of course we
were determined. It was pitch-dark in the loft. We
called in, but no answer came. I then proposed, in a
loud voice, so that if any one was there they could
hear me, that we fix bayonets and stick around and
satisfy ourselves that no one was there. Still no an-
swer. I then got in the loft, took my gun and com-
menced sticking around. At last an answer came
from the far corner that he would surrender. The
way I got into the loft was, I being a little fellow,
and Si Wolf a tall man, they put me on his shoulder,
and in that way I crawled in. We then left for
camp, passed a church, and was in time to see a wed-
ding. We drilled for the ladies, and had a good time.
September 2 — On a hunt to-day several of my com-
rades with myself came to a house, and the first thing
we heard was, "Is there a Jew in your detachment
that caught a deserter yesterday?" They would like
to see him, etc. At last one of the boys told them
that I was the Jew. After that I had a very good
time there, and in fact wherever I went I was re-
ceived very kindly, and was very sorry to see on the
4th that orders came for us to return to our brigade.
September 4 — Marched to Keswick, and found that
we would have to march to Gordonsville. Got there
that night. Fifteen miles to-day.
September 5 — Left here at 7, got to brigade at 10
in the morning, and from the 24th of last month up
to date I certainly have seen the best time since the
September 6 — Our captain, Harvey White, returned
to camp yesterday from a furlough.
September 8 — We are getting ready for a corps
review for to-morrow.
September 9 — To-day we had a review. Present :
General Lee, General Ewell, General Early, General
Johnson and General Rodes, of our corps, and Gen-
eral Hill, Gen. J. E. B. Stewart, and smaller fry of
our army. It was certainly a grand scene. Nothing
more up to the 14th.
September 14 — Left camp this morning at 7,
marched twelve miles and halted. Hear firing in front
on the Rapidan, at Summerville Ford. Here all
September 15 — Still some firing in front. We are
in reserve. I went to see the fight. I saw the enemy
very plainly, and thus I spent my New Year's Day.
September 16 — To-day there was a man shot for de-
sertion. Eight balls passed through him. The way
this is conducted is : the brigade that he belongs to,
or sometimes even the division, is drawn up in full
sight of the doomed man. He is tied to a stake in
front of his grave, which is already dug, and his
coffin at his side. There is a squad of twelve men
and one officer detailed to do the shooting. Eleven
of the guns are loaded. The guns are given to them
by the officer, so that no man knows which gun is
loaded. The order is then given to fire. Thus ends
Diary of a Tar Heel
the deserter's life. The brigade, or division, then
marches around him, so that every man can see bis,
the deserter's, end.
September 17 — Very little firing - to-day.
September 18 — Raining hard all day, and no tents.
Left camp at 2 in the afternoon, marched six miles,
halted at the river, and our regiment went on picket.
It is still raining very hard, and we are as wet as
drowned cats, and cold, too, for we cannot make a
fire in front of the enemy. If we did they would
have a good mark to shoot at.
September 19 — We are at Moulton's Ford.
September 20 — In speaking distance of the Yan-
September 21 — Our regiment was relieved to-day
by the 3d Alabama, of Battle's Brigade.
September 22 — I spoke and exchanged papers with
a Yankee of the 7th Ohio Regiment.
September 23 — Day of Atonement to-day. Noth-
ing more up to the 26th.
September 26 — We have built ourselves cabins in
our camps. This evening we went on picket.
September 27 — The Yankees are very active to-
day. Something is up.
September 28 — Our regiment is on picket ; will be
September 29 — All quiet to-day. Brother Morris
returned from Richmond yesterday, where he has been
for ten days on a furlough. Before our Jewish New
Year there was an order read out from General Lee j
granting a furlough to each Israelite to go to Rich- j
mond for the holidays if he so desired. I did not care
September 30 — We are shooting at the Yankees
to-day for fun, as they are trying to steal sheep from
the houses that are between our lines.
October 1 — Went on picket at 4 this afternoon, and
was roused up in the night to intercept a spy who is
in our lines, and is expecting to cross, but we did not
see him, for it was so dark we could see nothing.
October 2 — Relieved to-day. Very wet and dis-
agreeable weather. Nothing new up to the gth.
October 9 — Left camp at 4 this evening and halted
on the morning of the 10th at 1 o'clock, when we
caught up with our brigade. Marched twelve miles
on very muddy road, and fell into several holes. We
left again very early this morning and marched
twenty miles. We waded the Rapidan to-day at Lib-
October 11 — We forded Roberson River, and
marched up and down hollows without singing or
making any noise, so that the enemy could not see or
hear us. We heard firing on our left. We are eight
miles from Culpepper Court House.
October 12 — Started at daylight, marched twenty-
five miles, waded the Hazel River at 10 this morning.
Had to take off our shoes and pants, according to or-
ders. It was very cold. We got within a quarter
of a mile of Jefferson town, when the fight com-
Diary of a Tar Heel
menced. We drove the Yankees through town double
quick. We halted one mile on the other side of the
town, then formed in line of battle once more and
went forward. We drove the enemy over the Rappa-
hannock and through Warrington Springs ; took 300
prisoners and halted at 9 in the night.
October 13 — Left here at daylight, marched
through Warrington, a very handsome place, went
two miles further and camped for the night — seven
October 14 — My corps of sharpshooters marched
in front of the line. Left camp at 4 this morning,
and at daylight, as General Ewell and staff rode up
to us, there was a volley shot at us. We immediately
deployed and after the enemy. We fought on a run
for six hours, all the time the enemy falling back.
They at one time raised a white flag and surrendered.
We then stopped firing, and as we got within one hun-
dred feet they opened on us again, for they saw we
were only a line of sharpshooters. We then resumed
firing at them. I captured a mail-bag in the fight,
and in several letters I found some money. We
halted, and the enemy kept on running like wild
ducks. This is the battle of Bristow Station. We
took many prisoners. As we got through fighting we
heard firing on our right. We marched to their sup-
port, but when we got there the firing had ceased.
Twenty-five miles to-day. We camped on Manassas
Plain. Raining hard all night.
October 15 — Here all day, and talking with our
October 16 — Left this morning at 4, marched five
miles, and halted on the Orange and Alexander Rail-
road, tore it up one and a quarter miles, and camped.
October 17 — Marched four miles to-day and tore
and burned up the same amount of railroad.
October 18 — Started at 4 this morning and marched
ten miles toward Culpepper Court House. We tore
up the railroad from Manassas to the Rappahannock
River. The way we tear up railroads is this : we take
the cross-ties and make a square of them as high as
your head. We place the rails on the cross-ties, then
set it afire and the rails bend double.
October 19 — Left at 4 this morning, crossed the
river on pontoon bridges. It commenced to hail and
rain very hard, and kept it up for two hours. We got
very wet. Halted at Cedar Run, marched ten miles,
and stayed here until the 21st.
October 21 — We were sent to Kelly's Ford on
October 22 — Relieved to-day. It was bitter cold.
October 23 — We commenced putting up winter
quarters, and were hard at work up till the last of
November 1 — Moved into our shanties to-day.
There are five of us in mine. They are ten feet
November 3 — Went on picket on the Rappahannock
at Norman's Ford, six miles from camp.
November 6 — Were relieved to-day.
November 7 — To-day, as several of us went to get
Diary of a Tar Heel
some straw near Kelly's Ford, we heard firing, and
the long roll beat. Looking up we saw the Yankees
^crossing the river. We double-quicked to camp and
got there just in time to fall in with our regiment, to
intercept the enemy, but they had already crossed the
river before we got there. We manceuvered about
until dark, when my corps of sharpshooters was or-
dered out. We were within one hundred yards of the
Yankees, and saw them around their fires very plainly.
On the morning of the 8th we retreated in very good
order. I certainly was glad of it, as we were in a
very bad fix. We marched until sun-up and halted
on Stone Mountain, passed through Stevensburg.
Stayed here all night, and resumed our march and
halted on the morning of the 9th. We then crossed
the Rapidan at the Raccoon Ford, and are now
camped at our old camp at Moulton Ford. We
marched, since leaving Kelly's Ford, forty miles. The
distance is only seventeen miles. We were certainly
surprised for the first time since the war. We did not
dream the enemy was on us before the firing com-
menced. Our brigade was cut off from the army
twice, but our General Daniels got us through safe.
Nothing new up to the 26th.
November 26 — When we had marched seven miles
we heard cannonading. The enemy is trying to cross
the river at Jacob's Ford, but our boys kept them
back. We laid in breastworks of our own make until
November 27 — This morning we marched seven
miles, halted a short time, and resumed our march.
Got three miles further, and firing commenced in our
front. We then counter-marched and formed in line
of battle, in the edge of the woods. One corps of
sharpshooters was sent out to find the enemy. Fought
the enemy one-half hour and were forced back. My
corps then went out as reinforcement. We fought
then for four hours, and were called back to our
command. I, at one time in this fight, was in a close
place. Being in front, I did not hear the order to
fall back, and being by myself was left a target for
a dozen Yankees, but my Captain White saw what a
fix I was in and sent a squad of our company to my
relief, so I fell back with them. We then, that night,
went to Mine Run and formed our line of battle
November 28 — To-day the whole army is throwing
up breastworks. The sharpshooters are out in front,
my corps out to-day. We made ourselves small pits
to lay in as a protection from the Yankee bullets.
These pits are just about large enough to hold two
or three men. Pinkney King, Sam Wilson and my-
self are in one. We are shooting at the enemy all
day. They are returning the compliment. Late this
evening we saw some of them opposite our pits, try-
ing to get into a house. We jumped out of our pits
and fired at them several times, when poor King was
shot and died in a few minutes. Another man was
sent to relieve in his place, and we held our position.
The other corps of sharpshooters fought all day.
Diary of a Tar Heel
November 29 — Ours again to-day, but not as hard
as before, but heavy enough. The cannonading is
December 1 — The other corps is out to-day. The
Yankees, as well as ourselves, are well fortified, and
we are confronting one another.
December 2 — This morning at 3 we moved to the
right until daylight, when our corps was again sent
to the front. We advanced toward the enemy's
works. We moved, of course, very carefully, as we
saw their breastworks, and in front of us two cannon.
When we got in shooting range, the order was given
to "Charge !" We did so with a rebel yell, and as we
got upon their breastworks, lo and behold, there were
no Yankees, and the cannons we saw were nothing
but logs. We followed them to the river, but their
whole army had crossed. We, of course, captured a
great many of their sick and stragglers.
December 3 — Marched back to our camp at Moul-
ton's Ford, and our regiment was sent on picket at
Mitchell's Ford, seven miles from camp. This has.
been a very severe seven-days' campaign, as we fought
mostly all the time. Cold, sleety, disagreeable
weather, and we dare not make large fires, as that
would be a sure target for the Yankees. Mine Run
is a small stream on the Orange and Fredericksburg
turnpike. Nothing more worth recording up to the
8th, my birthday, and spent it as dull as could be.
Have been on picket, and relieved on Dole's Georgia
Brigade. Up to the 27th nothing doing.
December 27 — We moved our camps from our
picket posts seven miles from Orange Court House.
On the turnpike from there to Fredericksburg, and
commenced putting up winter quarters. On the 31st
moved into them, and for the first time in a year or
two we have with our rations some coffee, sugar and
The Year 1864
January 8 — It has been snowing, and is very cold.
Some of the boys have formed a dramatic company,
and I went to see them play "Toodles." There were
two men shot in our brigade for desertion to-day.
Nothing of interest until nth.
January n — Left our camp at sun-up, got five
miles and halted in the woods. We have been detailed
to run two sawmills, and we are now putting up win-
ter quarters there.
January 16 — Nothing more until to-day. W. R.
Berryhill has got the smallpox. Quite a number of
us were in the same quarters with him, but none of us
caught the disease. I was detailed to work at the
mills, and therefore I am learning a new trade. Live
January 20 — Hard work until to-day, when we were
sent out to lay a plank road. While at work General
Lee and his daughter rode by us, and soon after a
courier came from his headquarters and gave us some
woolen socks and gloves — sent to us from his daugh-
ter. Nothing more worth recording this month.
Februarv 2 — While hard at work in the woods,
"hauling stocks for the mill, my furlough came, for
eighteen days. So I was relieved. On the 3d I left
camp and got home on the morning of the 6th. It
took me several days to get accustomed to living as a
civilian, as I have been in camp for two years at a
stretch. I had a very good time, and will always be
grateful for the kindness shown me by every one
while at home.
February 23 — Reached camp to-day, and found that
my regiment had marched once since I left. This was
the first I missed since my regiment was formed.
Nothing more this month.
March 1 — Raining hard. Left camp at 9 this morn-
ing, halted at dark nine miles from Madison Court
House. Snowing to-night. We had a hard road to
travel, and when we got to our destination the enemy
March 2 — Started back to camp. The weather was
clear and cold. Got there at 7 in the evening, and I
stiff from walking. We marched eighteen miles to-
March 3 — Left camp at 8 this morning to inter-
cept General Kilpatrick, who is scouting in our lines.
We formed in line of battle, had all the roads guarded,
when we found out that he was already on his way
to the peninsula, so we returned to camp. Twenty
March 4 — I am as stiff as an old man this morn-
ing from yesterday's march on the plank road.
[ 57 ]
Diary of a Tar Heel
March 5 — We left the mills this morning - and re-
turned to our brigade, a distance of five miles. Noth-
ing more up to the 17th.
March 17 — An order was read out at dress parade
that all troops in the army would be held until the
end of the war. This was nothing of importance to
us, as we enlisted for that time. It is raining and
snowing very hard, and almost every day. Our regi-
ment is not in winter quarters, for we expect to move
when the bad weather stops. We had a snowball
fight — our regiment with the 43d North Carolina.
Then our brigade with Battle's Brigade. It was lots
of fun. Nothing more until the 26th.
March 26 — We were visited to-day by our Gov-
ernor, Zeb Vance, who made us a speech of two and
a half hour's duration. With him on the platform
was General Lee, General Ewell and several others.
March 28 — We were reviewed to-day by our Gov-
ernor. When I say reviewed, I mean all the North
Carolina troops in our corps. After the review we
went to Ramseur's Brigade, where he spoke again.
So did Generals Early, Rodes and Stewart. That is
all that is worth recording this month.
April 1 — Left camp at 8 this morning to go on
picket twelve miles from our camp. Our brigade
went on picket at Raccoon Ford, and picketed up to
Moulton's Ford. Raining hard to-day, also on the
2d. The river is ten feet above common watermark.
April 3 — As' I have not heard from my parents
since the war. they living in New York, I thought I
would send a personal advertisement to a New York
paper to let them know that my brother and myself
are well, and for them to send an answer through
the Richmond paper. I gave this to a Yankee picket,
who promised me he would send it to New York.
Nothing more up to the 7th.
April 7 — This is a day of fasting and prayer, set
apart by President Davis.
April 9 — Were relieved to-day by Doles' Georgia
Brigade. Got to camp at 1 in the evening, raining
very hard all day. Nothing more up to the 14th.
April 14 — I went to A. P. Hill's corps to visit my
friend, Lieutenant Rusler, and returned to camp on
April 15 — Nothing more up to the 18th.
April 18 — Our corps of sharpshooters went out to-
day target practising. We shoot a distance of 500
yards offhand. Some very good shooting was done.
April 20 — I hit the bull's-eye to-day. We are prac-
tising every day up to the 23d.
April 23 — Went to Moulton's Ford, met Stone-
wall Brigade on our way, and had some lively talk
with them, all in fun, of course. Stayed on picket
until 30th, then we were relieved at 1 1 in the morning,
and reached camp at 2.
May 1 — Rumors are flying that we will soon get
hard fighting. Nothing more up to the 4th.
May 4 — This morning we got orders to be ready at
a moment's notice. Broke camp at noon, marched to
Diary of a Tar Heel
our old breastworks at Mine Run, seven miles from
camp. Rested two hours, and moved forward toward
the river three miles further and halted.
May 5 — Moved this morning, feeling for the enemy,
and came up to them at noon, five miles from the Run,
in the Wilderness. It certainly is a wilderness ; it is
almost impossible for a man to walk, as the woods are
thick with an underbrush growth and all kinds of
shrubbery, old logs, grapevines, and goodness knows
what. My corps of sharpshooters was ordered to the
front. We formed in line and advanced to the enemy.
We fought them very hard for three hours, they fall-
ing back all the time. Our sharpshooters' line got
mixed up with Gordon's Brigade, and fought with
them. In one charge we got to the most elevated
place in the Wilderness. We looked back for our bri-
gade, but saw it not. Just then a Yankee officer
came up and we took him prisoner. Some of Gor-
don's men took him to the rear. Six of our regiment,
sharpshooters, myself included, went to the right to
join our regiment, but were picked up by the Yankees
and made prisoners. We were run back in their line
on the double quick. When we got to their rear we
found about 300 of our men were already prisoners.
The Yankees lost very heavily in this fight, more than
we did. Although we lost heavy enough, but, my
Heavens ! what an army they have got. It seems to
me that there is ten of them to one of us. It looks
strange that we could deliver such fearful blows,
when, in fact, if numbers counted, they should have
killed us two years ago. In going to their rear we
passed through four lines of battle and reinforce-
ments still coming up, while we are satisfied with, or
at least have no more than one line of battle.
May 6 — Fighting commenced at daylight, and lasted
all day. So did it last with their everlasting rein-
forcements. If General Lee only had half their men r
and those men were rebels, we would go to Wash-
ington in two weeks. When he has fought such an
army for four years it certainly shows we have the
generals and the fighting-stock on our side, and they
have the hirelings. Look at our army, and you will
see them in rags and barefooted. But among the
Yankees I see nothing but an abundance of every-
thing. Still, they haven't whipped the rebels. Sev-
eral of our boys came in as prisoners to-day, with
them Engle of our company. They think I was killed,
so does my brother, but as yet the bullet has not done
its last work for your humble servant.
May 7 — We are still penned up as prisoners in the
rear of the army, close by General Grant's headquar-
ters. A great many prisoners came in to-day. From
some of them I heard that my brother was well.
May 8 — We left this place at dark last night, but
only got a distance of two miles, and it took us until
9 in the morning of the 9th.
May 9 — Started again this morning, and passed over
the Chancellorsville battlefield. Marched twelve miles
to-day. We passed a brigade of negro troops. They
gave us a terrible cursing, and hollered "Fort Pil-
Diary of a Tar Heel
low" at us. I am only sorry that this brigade of ne-
groes was not there, then they certainly would not
curse us now. We halted at dark on the plank road
seven miles from Fredericksburg.
May 10 — Fighting to-day at Spottsylvania Court
House. Prisoners still coming in, two more from my
May ii — This morning about 800 more prisoners
came in. Most of them were from my brigade, as
well as from Dole's Georgians. I was surprised to
see my brother with them. He was taken yesterday,
but before he surrendered he sent two of the enemy
to their long home with his bayonet.
May 12 — Raining hard all day, and fighting all last
night. About 2 o'clock this afternoon about 2,000
prisoners came in, with them Major-General John-
son and Brigadier-General Stewart. We have moved
four miles nearer to Fredericksburg. I suppose they
think we are too close to our own lines, and they
are afraid we will be recaptured, as it was a few days
ago. We heard our boys', or, as the Yankees call it,
the Rebel yell. We prisoners also gave the Rebel
yell. A few minutes after that they brought cannon
to bear on us, and we were told to stop, or they
would open on us. We stopped.
May 13 — Left here this morning and passed
through Fredericksburg. Crossed the Rappahannock
on pontoon bridges, and got to Belle Plain on the
Potomac at 3 o'clock — nineteen miles to-day. It
rained all day, and it is very muddy.
May 14 — We are still camped here. Have been
prisoners since the 5th of this month, and have drawn
three and a half days' rations. On that kind of a diet
I am not getting very fat. We certainly would have
suffered a great deal, but our Yankee guard gave us
quite a lot of their own rations.
May 15 — Still here. They are fighting very hard
on the front.
May 16 — Left this morning at 11 in a tugboat, and
from here packed into the Steamer S. R. Spaulding.
We are now on our way to a regular prison. We
got there at 8 o'clock to-night, and found it to be
Point Lookout, Md., fifty miles from Belle Plain. It
is in St. Mary's County. We were drawn up in line,
searched for valuables, and they taken from us, and
marched to prison, one mile from the landing. There
are sixteen men in each tent.
May 17 — Saw Mack Sample, Will Stone and sev-
eral of our company to-day that have been prisoners
since the battle of Gettysburg. We get two meals a
May 18 — We are divided in divisions and com-
panies. There is a thousand in each division and one
hundred in each company. A sergeant commands each
company. We get light bread one day and crackers
May 19 — Saw Darnell, of my company, to-day. He
was just from the front. He brings us very bad
news. Our General Daniels was killed, which is cer-
tainlv a great loss to us, for he was a good and brave
Diary of a Tar Heel
man, also our major of the 53d, Iredell, and my cap-
tain, White, all killed. Colonel Owens, my colonel,
was mortally wounded, and quite a number of my
company were killed and wounded. He says there is
only seven of our company left, and that our Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Morehead is commanding Daniels' Bri-
May 20 — Three years ago to-day the Old North
State left the Union, and we went to the front full of
hopes to speedily show the Yankee Government that
the South had a right to leave the Union ; but to-day,
how dark it looks !
May 21 — I heard to-day that my brother Morris
was a prisoner at Fort Delaware, Pa. I asked for a
parole to-day to go and see my parents in New York,
but they could not see it.
May 22 — Nothing new from the front.
May 23 — We are guarded by negro troops, who are
as mean as hell. At each meal there is a guard placed
over 500 prisoners, who go to their meals in ranks
of four. We are not allowed to cross a certain line,
called the "Dead Line," but as 500 men go at one
time to meals, of course near the door there is always
a rush. To-day one of our men accidentally crossed
the line. He was pushed over by the crowd, when
a black devil shot and killed him, and wounded two
May 24 — One of yesterday's wounded died to-day.
This negro company was taken away to-day, as there
[ 64 ]
is no telling what even men without arms will do to
such devils, although they have got guns.
May 25 — Engle received a letter from his father to-
day, who told him they had seen my parents, and I
would hear from them soon. This is the first time
that I have heard about my parents since the com-
mencement of the war. Thank God, my parents, as
well as my sisters and brothers, are well.
' May 26 — Received two letters to-day, one from
home and one from my brother Pincus, who went to
Washington on his way to visit Morris and myself,
as he has to get a pass from headquarters before he
can see us. He was refused and returned home. Our
daily labor as prisoners is that at 5 in the morning
we have roll call; 6, breakfast, 500 at a time, as one
lot gets through another takes its place, until four
lots have eaten ; we then stroll about the prison un-
til 1 o'clock, when we eat dinner in the same style
as breakfast, then loaf about again until sundown.
Roll is called again, thus ending the day. We get for
breakfast five crackers with worms in them ; as a sub-
stitute for butter, a small piece of pork, and a tin
cup full of coffee ; dinner, four of the above crack-
ers, a quarter of a pound mule meat and a cup of bean
soup, and every fourth day an eight-ounce loaf of
white bread. Nothing more this month.
June 8 — There is nothing new up to to-day, when I
received a box of eatables, one or two shirts, and one
pair of pants from home. The only way we can pass
our time off is playing cards and chess. Six hundred
Diary of a Tar Heel
prisoners came in to-day, with them a lady, who is an
artillery sergeant. Being questioned by the provost
marshal, she said she could straddle a horse, jump a
fence and kill a Yankee as well as any rebel. As
time in prison is very dull and always the same thing
as the day preceding, I shall not mention each day,
but only those days upon which something happened.
June ii — Five hundred more prisoners came in to-
June 12 — To-day, as the negro guard was relieved,
two of them commenced playing with their guns and
bayonets, sticking at one another. Fortunately one
of their guns, by accident, went off and made a hole
in the other one's body, which killed him instantly.
The other one kicked at him several times, telling
him to get up as the rebels were laughing at him, but
in a very short time he found out that he had killed
his comrade and that we were laughing sure enough.
June 27 — Received money to-day from home, but
they gave me sutler's checks for it, as we were not
allowed any money, for fear we would bribe the sen-
tinels and make our escape.
July 4 — Four hundred prisoners left here for some
other prison, as there were too many here.
July 8 — Engle, Riter and myself received boxes
from New York to-day, but as Riter has gone to the
other prison with the 400 we have made away with
Julv 23 — Three hundred more were sent from here
to the new prison, which is in Elmira, N. Y., myself
July 25 — Left Point Lookout at 8 o'clock this eve-
ning in the frigate Victor for New York. There are
700 prisoners on board.
July 26 — To-day on the ocean a great many of our
boys were seasick, but not I. I was promised a guard
to take me to see my parents in New York for thirty
July 27 — We see the Jersey shore this morning.
Our vessel was racing with another. We had too
much steam up; the consequence was a fire on board,
but we soon had it out. We landed at Jersey City at
12 M., and were immediately put in cars, and the
officer that promised to send me to my parents re-
fused to do so. We left here at 1, got to Elmira at
8 in the evening.
July 28 — We were treated very good on the road,
and especially at Goshen, N. Y. The ladies gave us
eatables and the men gave us tobacco.
July 29 — There are at present some 3,000 prisoners
here. I like this place better than Point Lookout.
We are fenced in by a high fence, in, I judge, a 200-
acre lot. There is an observatory outside, and some
Yankee is making money, as he charges ten cents for
every one that wishes to see the rebels.
August — Nothing worth recording this month, ex-
cept that the fare is the same as at Point Lookout.
September — It is very cold, worse than I have seen
it in the South in the dead of winter.
Diary of a Tar Heel
October — We have got the smallpox in prison, and
.from six to twelve are taken out dead daily. We can
buy from prisoners rats, 25 cents each, killed and
dressed. Quite a number of our boys have gone into
— the rat business. On the nth of this month there
were 800 sick prisoners sent South on parole.
November and December — Nothing, only bitter
cold. We dance every night at some of our qua.ters.
Some of the men put a white handkerchief around
one of their arms, and these act as the ladies. We
have a jolly good time.
The Year 1865
January — Nothing, only that I fear that our cause
is lost, as we are losing heavily, and have no more
men at home to come to the army. Our resources
in everything are at an end, while the enemy are
seemingly stronger than ever. All the prisoners in
Northern prisons, it seems, will have to stay until the
°end of the war, as Grant would rather feed than
February — The smallpox is frightful. There is not
a day that at least twenty men are taken out dead.
Cold is no name for the weather now. They have
given most of us Yankee overcoats, but have cut the
skirts off. The reason of this is that the skirts are
long and if they left them on we might pass out as
March — Nothing new. It is the same gloomy and
•discouraging news from the South, and gloomy and
•discouraging in prison.
April — I suppose the end is near, for there is no
more hope for the South to gain her independence.
On the 10th of this month we were told by an officer
Diary of a Tar Heel
that all those who wished to get out of prison by tak-
ing the oath of allegiance to the United States could
do so in a very few days. There was quite a consul-
tation among the prisoners. On the morning of the
12th we heard that Lee had surrendered on the 9th,
and about 400, myself with them, took the cursed oath
and were given transportation to wherever we wanted
to go. I took mine to New York City to my parents,
whom I have not seen since 1858. Our cause is lost;,
our comrades who have given their lives for the in-
dependence of the South have died in vain ; that is,
the cause for which they gave their lives is lost, but
they positively did not give their lives in vain. They
gave it for a most righteous cause, even if the Cause-
was lost. Those that remain to see the end for which
they fought — what have we left? Our sufferings and.
privations would be nothing had the end been other-
wise, for we have suffered hunger, been without suffi-
cient clothing, barefooted, lousy, and have suffered
more than any one can believe, except soldiers of the
Southern Confederacy. And the end of all is a deso-
lated home to go to. When I commenced this diary
of my life as a Confederate soldier I was full of hope
for the speedy termination of the war, and our inde-
pendence. I was not quite nineteen years old. I am
now twenty-three. The four years that I have given
to my country I do not regret, nor am I sorry for one
day that I have given — my only regret is that we have
lost that for which we fought. Nor do I for one-
moment think that we lost it by any other way than
by being outnumbered at least five if not ten to one.
The world was open to the enemy, but shut out to
us. I shall now close this diary in sorrow, but to the
last I will say that, although but a private, I still say
our Cause was just, nor do I regret one thing that I
have done to cripple the North.
The following sketch is taken from Clark's "His-
tory of the War," written by my Colonel Morehead.
This gives the endurance of my company, regiment
and brigade after I was captured.
History of the Fifty-third Regiment from
May 5, 1864
(Taken from Col. James T. Morehead's History of
On the 5th or 6th of May, 1864, the sharpshoot-
ers of this regiment were much annoyed by one of
the Federal sharpshooters, who had a long-range rifle
and who had climbed up a tall tree from which he
could pick off our men, though sheltered by stump
and stones, himself out of range of our guns. Pri-
vate Leon, of Company B (Mecklenburg), concluded
that this thing would have to stop, and taking advan-
tage of every knoll, hollow, and stump, he crawled
near enough for his rifle to reach, took a pop at this
disturber of the peace, and he came tumbling down.
Upon running up to his victim, Leon discovered him
to be a Canadian Indian, and clutching his scalp-
lock, dragged him to our line of sharpshooters.
The regiment was at Lynchburg when the pursuit
of Hunter began. Marching with General Early to
Washington, D. C, was one of the regiments left to
support the picket line under the walls of Washing-
ton, while the rest of the corps made good its retreat
to the valley — the Nineteenth and Sixth Corps of
the Federal army having been poured into the city
for its defense. While supporting the pickets, this
regiment became involved in one of the hottest con-
flicts in its experience, but succeeded in holding its
position, repulsing and driving the enemy back to the
earthworks which defended the city. At midnight it
received orders to retire in perfect silence, and to the
surprise of all, when we reached the position on the
hills near the city, where we had left the corps, it
was ascertained that the corps had left the night be-
fore, twenty-four hours — and we marched the whole
night and the greater part of the next day before we
caught up with the rear guards. Early's ruse, as
usual, had succeeded in deceiving the enemy.
This regiment participated in all the battles in the
Valley in 1864, and in numerous combats and skir-
mishes. In this Valley campaign the regiment lost
its gallant Colonel Owens, who died at Snicker's
Ford, near Snicker's Gap, in August, 1864. He had
been absent since the 10th of May, disabled by wounds
at Spottsylvania Court House; had returned just as
the regiment was eating dinner, and almost while we
were congratulating him on his safe return we re-
ceived notice that the enemy had crossed the river at
Snicker's Ford. The order to "fall in" was given,
we marched to the river, and drove the enemy across,
after a short but severe conflict. The firing had ceased,,
excepting now and then a dropping shot, when Col-
Diary of a Tar Heel
onel Owens was killed by one of these stray shots.
He was a good officer, brave, humane, social, popu-
lar with both men and officers. He was succeeded by
the writer as Colonel. At Winchester, on 19th Sep-
tember, 1864, Adjutant Osborne was killed. Two
years ago, Color Sergeant Taylor, of Company E,
Surry County, who had resided in Utah since 1866,
visited me. He received a ball in his hip, from which
wound he still limps, and in talking about his own
wound, he told me as we were charging the third
Federal line at Winchester, having broken the first
two, and when near the temporary breastwork of the
enemy he received the shot which disabled him for
life, and that, as he fell, young Osborne picked up
the flag, and waving it, ran forward, cheering on the
men, and was killed within twenty feet of the color
sergeant. He was an efficient officer and daring sol-
dier, I suppose not older than twenty years. Lieut.
W. R. Murray, of Company A, than whom there was
not a better officer or braver soldier in the "Old
Guard" of Napoleon, acted as adjutant after the death
of Osborne till the surrender of Appomattox.
As stated before, Major Iredell, a true gentleman
and brave soldier, was killed at Spottsylvania Court
House. Capt. John W. Rierson succeeded him. At
Winchester, finding that there was a gap of two or
three hundred yards between my left and the troops
on the left, and that the enemy had discovered and
were preparing to take advantage of it, I directed
Major Rierson to find General Grimes on the right of
the division (General Rodes had been killed in the
beginning of the action), and apprise him of the sit-
uation. After some time he returned, saluted, and re-
ported, the fighting being very heavy all the time,
when I discovered that Major Rierson was shot
through the neck, which wound was received before
he found General Grimes, but he nevertheless per-
formed the duty, returned, and reported, and did not
then go to the rear until I directed him to do so.
This gallant officer was killed when the enemy broke
over our lines at Petersburg, a few days before Ap-
pomattox. He was entitled to his commission as
lieutenant-colonel from the date of the battle of
Snicker's Ford, but I do not know that he received it.
This was a volunteer regiment, enlisted in the lat-
ter part of the winter and first part of the spring of
1862, and was organized at Camp Mangum, near
Raleigh, the first week in May, 1862, and assigned
to Daniels' Brigade (Rodes' Division). William A.
Owens, of Mecklenburg County, was elected colonel;
James T. Morehead, of Guilford County, lieutenant-
colonel, and James Johnson Iredell, of Wake County,
Colonel Owens had already been in service more
than one year, having served as captain in the First
(Bethel) Regiment, and at the time of his election
was lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh Regiment.
Lieutenant-Colonel Morehead had also been in the
service the year before, having entered the same in
April, 1861, as lieutenant of the "Guilford Grays"
Diary of a Tar Heel
(afterward Company B of the Twenty-seventh Regi-
ment), and at the time of his election was a captain in
the Forty-fifth Regiment.
William B. Osborne, of Mecklenburg County, was
appointed captain and assistant quartermaster. He re-
signed in the fall of 1862, and was succeeded by
Capt. John B. Burwell. J. F. Long was appointed
surgeon; Lauriston H. Hill, of Stokes County, as-
sistant surgeon, and promoted surgeon in 1863. Wil-
liam Hill, of Mecklenburg, was appointed Captain
A. C. S. In 1863, Charles Gresham, of Virginia, was
assigned to duty with this regiment as assistant sur-
geon. James H. Colton, of Randolph County, was
appointed chaplain ; . J. H. Owens, sergeant-major
(promoted second lieutenant of Company I and
killed); R. B. Burwell, quartermaster-sergeant; J. C.
Palmer, commissary sergeant; R. S. Barnett, ord-
nance sergeant. Upon the promotion of J. H. Owens,
Aaron Katz, of Company B, succeeded him as ser-
geant-major, and upon his being captured, Robert A.
Fleming, of Company A, was sergeant-major.
Company A was from Guilford County. A. P. Mc-
Daniel was its first captain, commissioned February
25, 1862, and upon his retirement in 1863, Lieut. J. M.
Sutton was promoted captain and wounted at Beth-
esda Church, and on September 21, 1864, in the Val-
ley, and captured at Petersburg; P. W. Haterick:
(killed at Gettysburg), first lieutenant; J. M. Sutton,
second lieutenant; W. L. Flemming, promoted from
sergeant to second lieutenant in 1863 ; J. W. Scott,.
promoted second lieutenant from sergeant (chief of
regimental corps of sharpshooters).
Company B was from Mecklenburg County, and
its first captain was J. Harvey White, commissioned
March i, 1862, killed at Spottsylvania Court House
in May, 1864. Samuel E. Belk, first lieutenant; John
M. Springs, second lieutenant, promoted assistant
quartermaster ; William M. Matthews, second lieuten-
ant, promoted from first sergeant; M. E. Alexander,
promoted second lieutenant from second sergeant.
Lieutenants Belk, Matthews and Alexander were
wounded at Gettysburg.
Company C was from Johnston, Chatham, and
Wake, mostly from Johnston. Its first captain was
John Leach, commissioned February 28, 1862 ; was
succeeded as captain by J. C. Richardson (wounded
at Petersburg), commissioned April 27, 1863, both
from Johnston County ; George T. Leach, of Chatham,
commissioned first lieutenant March 7, 1862 ; John H.
Tomlinson, of Johnston County, commissioned second
lieutenant July 21, 1862.
Company D was from Guilford, Cumberland, For-
syth, Stokes, Bladen, and Surry. David Scott, Jr.,
of Guilford County, was commissioned captain March
1, 1862, resigned, and was succeeded May 15, 1863, by
Alexander Ray, of Cumberland County, promoted
from first Jieutenant and killed at Petersburg, April,
1865. Alexander Ray was commissioned first lieu-
tenant March 1, 1862; Madison L. Efland, of Guil-
ford County, commissioned second lieutenant March
Diary of a Tar Heel
l, 1862, promoted first lieutenant May 15, 1863, and
wounded ; A. H. Westmoreland, Stokes County, was
promoted from the ranks to second lieutenant in 1863.
Company E was from Surry County. J. C. Nor-
man was commissioned captain on March 8, 1862, re-
signed the following December, and was succeeded
by First Lieut. Rogert A. Hill, killed in 1864, suc-
ceeded in turn as captain by First Lieut. B. W. Min-
ter; Samuel Walker was commissioned second lieu-
tenant March 8, 1862, promoted to first lieutenant
December, 1862, and resigned ; B. W. Minter, sec-
ond lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant and captain ;
Henry Hines, second lieutenant, in 1862 ; Logan Be-
mer, promoted from corporal to second lieutenant,
wounded and captured, in 1864 ; James A. Hill, sec-
ond lieutenant, captured in 1864.
Company F was from Alamance and Chatham.
G. M. G. Albright was commissioned captain May 5,
1862, killed July, 1863, at Gettysburg, and succeeded
by A. G. Albright, promoted from first lieutenant
(wounded at Fisher's Hill, 1864) ; Jesse M. Holt, first
lieutenant, July 16, 1863, promoted from second lieu-
tenant (killed at Winchester, 1864) ; Branson Lambe,
commissioned in 1864, promoted from second lieuten-
ant ; John J. Webster, commissioned second lieuten-
ant May, 1862, and resigned ; S. J. Albright, commis-
sioned second lieutenant in 1862, and killed at Spott-
sylvania Court House in 1864.
Company G was from Stokes County. Capt.
Spottswood B. Taylor was commissioned captain on
[ 78 ]
March 20, 1862, and resigned May, 1862; was suc-
ceeded by John W. Rierson, promoted from second
lieutenant, and who was, in 1863, promoted to ma-
jor, wounded at Winchester, and killed at Peters-
burg, April, 1865. He was in time succeeded as cap-
tain by H. H. Campbell, promoted from first lieuten-
ant, and killed at Winchester. G. B. Moore was com-
missioned first lieutenant in March, 1862, and re-
signed in June; John W. Rierson commissioned sec-
ond lieutenant March, 1862 ; W. H. McKinney was
promoted from the ranks in May, 1862, to second lieu-
tenant, and wounded at Winchester; C. F. Hall, pro-
moted from the ranks to second lieutenant, mortally
wounded at Gettysburg; W. F. Campbell, promoted
first lieutenant, and wounded at Washington, D. C.
Company H was from Stokes County. Capt.
Spottswood B. Taylor was commissioned on March
20, 1862, and resigned on account of ill-health, Novem-
ber, 1863, and was succeeded by John E. Miller, pro-
moted from second lieutenant, who was wounded at
Snicker's Ford and captured, 1864 ; Thomas S. Bur-
nett, commissioned first lieutenant March 20, 1862,
and killed in 1863 ; Charles A. McGehee, first lieuten-
ant, 1862, wounded at Gettysburg, July, 1863, and
captured ; Alexander M. King, second lieutenant,
March, 1862 ; J. Henry Owens, promoted second lieu-
tenant from sergeant-major, December, 1862, and
killed ; Alexander Boyles, promoted first lieutenant.
Company I was from Union County. E. A. Jerome
was commissioned captain March 20, 1862, and re-
Diary of a Tar Heel
signed in June following, and was succeeded by-
Thomas E. Ashcraft, promoted from first lieutenant;
John D. Cuthbertson, commissioned second lieutenant
March 20, 1862, promoted first lieutenant; Joshua
Lee, commissioned second lieutenant March 20, 1862 ;
James E. Green, promoted from the ranks, second
lieutenant, June 24, 1862; A. T. Marsh, promoted
from sergeant to second lieutenant May 19, 1864.
Company K was from Wilkes County. William J.
Miller was commissioned captain March 20, 1862,
killed at Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, and was succeeded
by Jesse F. Eller, promoted from second lieutenant;
Thomas C. Miller, promoted from second lieutenant to
first lieutenant, July 1, 1863; Thomas C. Miller, com-
missioned to second lieutenant in August, 1862.
This regiment lost in killed its first colonel, who was
twice wounded ; both of its majors, one of them, Rier-
son, several times wounded, and its adjutant. Its
surviving colonel was wounded three times — at Gettys-
burg, Fisher's Hill, and in the assault upon the Fed-
eral lines at Hare's Hill on March 25, 1865, in which
last engagement he was captured within the enemy's
As it is, I have only the approximately correct re-
port of the losses of one of the companies of the regi-
ment, and that only in one battle, but I think the
losses of the other companies may be fairly estimated
from the losses of this one.
Company B lost at Gettysburg, out of sixtv-five
men, eight killed and twenty-two wounded, and of the
four officers, three were wounded.
I meet many of these scarred and now grizzly vet-
erans of the companies from Alamance, Guilford,
Stokes, and Surry at my courts in these counties, and
hear, sometimes from those from the other counties,
and with very few exceptions, they have shown them-
selves to be as good citizens as they were gallant sol-
diers. They illustrate that "peace hath her victories
no less renowned than war."
The regiment, reduced to a handful of men, shared
the fortunes of the historic retreat, and surrendered
at Appomattox, being then commanded by Capt.
Thomas E. Ashcraft, the brigade being commanded
by Col. David G. Cowand. General Grimes having
been made a major-general, commanded the division.
I cannot close this sketch without acknowledging
my indebtedness to Captain Sutton and Private J.
Montgomery, of Company A ; L. Leon, of Company
B, who kindly furnished me with copy of a diary kept
by him from the organization of the regiment up to
May, 1864, when he was captured; Captain Albright,
of Company F; Capt. S. B. Taylor, of Company H,
and Lieut. W. F. Campbell, of Company G, for val-
uable information ; and the hope that the publication
of the sketches of the North Carolina regiments will
excite interest enough among the old soldiers to give
us further dates and incidents. I wish I could write
a history of my regiment which would do the officers
and men full credit for their patriotism and services.
Diary of a Tar Heel
The patriotism and heroism of these soldiers were
illustrated by the patient and uncomplaining endurance
of the forced march, the short rations, the hardships
of winter camps and campaigns as much as by their
fighting qualities. Posterity will hesitate to decide
which is most worthy of admiration.
JAMES T. MOREHEAD.
Greensboro, N. C,
April 9, 1 90 1.
FIRST NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENT
ROSTER OF COMPANIES
Edgecombe Guards. Capt. John L. Bridgers.
Hornet's Nest Riflemen. Capt. L. S. Williams.
Charlotte Grays. Capt. E. A. Ross.
Orange Light Infantry. Capt. R. J. Ashe.
Buncombe Riflemen. Capt. W. W. McDowell.
Lafayette Light Infantry. Capt. J. B. Starr.
Burke Rifles. Capt. C. N. Avery.
Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry. Capt. W.
Enfield Blues. Capt. D. B. Bell.
Southern Stars. Capt. W. J. Hoke. 5
ROLL OF CHARLOTTE GRAYS. COMPANY C,
FIRST N. C. BETHEL REGIMENT
ENLISTED APRIL, 1861.
E. A. Ross, Capt., P. Maj. of D. L. Bringle, 5th or Ensign.
11th N. C. W. D. Elms, 1st corporal,
E. B. Cohen, 1st lieut. P. Capt., 37th N. C.
T. B. Trotter, 2nd lieut. W. B. Taylor, 2nd corporal,
C. W. Alexander, 2nd lieut. P. 2nd lieut., Co. A,
C. R. Staley, orderly sergeant. 11th N. C.
J. P. Elms, 2nd sergeant, Henry Terris, 3rd corporal.
P. lieut., 37th N. C. George Wolfe, 4th corporal.
J. G. McCorkle, 3rd lieut. Dr. J. B. Boyd, surgeon.
W. G. Berryhill, 4th lieut.
M. R. Alexander. Wm. Brown.
T. A. Alexander. Wm. J. Brown.
Lindsey Adams. Ed. F. Britton.
J. P. Andrey, P. Capt., L. Behrends.
49th N. C. Wm. Calder.
W. E. Andrey, P. Capt., J. W. Cathey.
30th N. C. S. P. Caldwell.
A. H. Brown. J. F. Crawson.
[ 83 ] ' ;
Diary of a Tar Heel
T. B. Cowan.
T. J. Campbell.
J. W. Clendennen.
J. F. Collins.
T. G. Davis.
J. T. Downs, P. Lieut,
30th N. C.
L. W. Downs.
J. P. A. Davidson.
J. R. Dunn.
J. M. Earnheanut.
M. F. Ezzell.
J. A. Ezzell.
S. H. Elliott.
J. A. Elliott.
R. H. Flow.
I. S. A. Frazier.
R. H. Grier, P. Lieut.,
49th N. C.
J. C. Grier, P. Capt., 49th N. C.
J. M. Grier.
J. A. Gibson.
D. P. Glenn.
J. R. Gribble.
R. L. Gillespie.
D. W. Hall.
J. C. Hill.
W. J. Hill.
H. H. Hill.
W. Lee Harrel, P. Capt.,
A 11th N. C.
Robt. H. Hand, P. Lieut.,
A 11th N. C.
R. H. Howard.
Jas. M. Hutchison.
Cynes N. Hutchison.
Tom F. Hoton
Tom H. Harkey.
Harper C. Houston.
T. Lindsev Holms.
Jas. T. Haskell.
W. T. Hanser.
George T. Herron.
Geo. W. Howey.
L. P. Henderson.
Jack R. Isreal.
Wm. S. Icehower.
E. P. Ingold.
Robt. W. Johnston.
Wm. H. Kistler.
Jack A. Kinsey.
J. H. Knox.
J. C. Levi.
Tom F. McGinn.
D. Watt McDonald.
John H. McDonald.
Robt. J. Monteith.
Moses O. Monteith.
Sam'l J. McElroy.
Wm. B. Neal.
L. M. Neal.
S. R. Neal.
P. A. Neal.
Thos. W. Neely.
J. T. Orr.
John L. Osborne.
J. E. Orman.
S. A. Phillips.*
W. R. Carter.
R. A. Carter.
John G. Cotts, P. Lieut.,
Wm. M. Patts.
Lawson A. Cotts, P. Capt., David I. Sample.
37th N. C. James M. Saville.
Calvin M. Queny. Robt. Frank Simpson.
Theo. C. Ruddock. S. E. Todd.
J. R. Rea. Wm. Todd.
D. B. Rea. John W. Treloan.
Wm. D. Stone. Hugh A. Tate.
W. Steele. Charles B. Watt.
Jim W. Stowe. B. Frank Watt.
Wm. E. Sizer. C. C. Wingate.
J. Monroe Sims, Q. M. Sergt, T. D. Wolfe.
11th N. C. T. J. Wolfe.
Richard A. Springs. John Wiley.
C. Ed. Smith.
S. B. Smith.
M. H. Smith. BY W. B. TAYLOR.
W. J. B. Smith.
W. H. Saville. Aug. 24th, 1899.
John W. Sample. Total, 143 officers and men.
FIFTY-THIRD NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENT
ROSTER OF COMPANIES
Co. A. Guilford. Capt. A. P. McDaniel.
Co. B. Mecklenberg. Capt. J. H. White.
Co. C. Johnson; Chatham; Wake. Capt. John Leach.
Co. D. Guilford; Cumberland; Forsythe; Stokes; Bladen;
Surry. Capt. David Scott.
Co. E. Surry. Capt. J. C. Norman.
Co. F. Alamance; Chatham. Capt. G. M. G. Albright.
Co. G. Stokes. Capt. G. W. Clark.
Co. H. Stokes. Capt. S. B. Taylor.
Co. I. Union. Capt. Thomas E. Ashcraft.
Co. K. Wilkes. Capt. W. J. Miller.
COMPANY B, 53RD REGIMENT, N. C. T., C. S. A.
J. H. White,, captain, k. W. M. Matthews, lieut.
S. E. Belk, captain, k. M. E. Alexander; lieut.
J. M. Springs, lieut.
Diary of a Tar Heel
R. J. Patterson, w.
S. M. Blair.
R. A. Davis.
A. N. Gray.
W. R. Baily.
R. H. Todd, k.
Alexander, W. H., k.
Alexander, J. W., d.
Alexander, Benj. P., d.
Alexander, Benj. C.
Anderson, Wm., d.
Atchison, Wm., c. and w.
Armstrong, Leroy, c.
Barnett, W. A., k.
Barnett, R. S.
Barnett, E. L. S.
Berryhill, W. A., c.
Berryhill, Andrew, w.
Barnes, S. S., d.
Bruce, G. W.
Burwell, J. B.
Benton, Sam'l, w.
Baker, G. F., w.
Cochran, J. M.
Cochran, Wm. R.
Cochran, R. C.
Catchcoat, J. H., w.
Capps, John, d.
Caton, Elijah, w. and c.
Caton, Sylv., c. and d.
Clark, W. H.
Clark, W. C.
Clark, A. W.
Collins, John, k.
Campbell, J. P.
Davis, W. A., d.
Donnell, W. T., w. and c.
Eagle, John, w.
Eagle, W. H.
Epps, W. D., k.
Frazier, J. L.
Farrices, Z. W.
Frazier, J. C. R.
Grier, J. G, w.
Giles, M. O.
Giles, S. H.
Howie, J. M.
Howie, Sam'l M., w.
Howie, F. M., w.
Hall, H. L., w.
Hood, R. L., c.
Harry, W. B., w.
Hoover, F. M.
King, P. A., k.
Kirkpatrick, T. A.
Knox, J. S.
Love, D. L.
Marks, S. S., c.
Marks, J. G., w.
Marks, T. E., k.
Marks, W. S.
McElroy, Jas. W., k.
Mitchell, C. J.
McKinney, T. A., c.
Merritt, Wm. N., k.
Morrison, J. M.
McCombs, A. H., w. and c.
Maxwell, P. P., w.
McCrum, H. A., k.
Norment, A. A., k.
Otters, Cooney, c. and d.
Owens, J. Henry, k.
Potts, Jas. H.
Patterson, S. L.
Parks, Miah, c.
Reid, H. K.
Reid, J. R, k.
Russell, H. T., c.
Rodden, N. B. f w.
Rodden, W. R, k.
Robinson, J. P.
Sweat, J. M.
Sample, H. B., c.
Sample, J. W.
Sample, J. M., c.
Springs, R. A.
Stone, W. D., w. and c.
Sulivan, W. L.
Stewart, W. S., d.
Taylor, J. W., w.
Todd, S. E.
Trotter, A. G.
Trotter, Thos., d.
Vickers, E. N.
Worthern, Henry, d.
Wilkenson, Neil, k.
Wolfe, C. H.
Winders, P. S., c.
Wilson, L. R., c.
Wilson, J. H, k.
Wilson, S. W., w. and c.
Wilson, J. M.
Wilkinson, R. L.
Williams, J. W.
Williams, A. L.
Williamson, A. L., c.
Williamson, J. M., c.
White, J. T.
Total, 110; killed, 16; wounded 21; died, 12; captured, 2a
FROM A LITERARY STANDPOINT
Each one of these publications has high
merit. Mechanically they represent the high-
est achievements in the art of book-making,
easily ranking with the choicest production
of the oldest and best known publishers in
America, and they present both in text and
illustrations as do no other publications of
theii class, the thought and life of
"THE REAL SOUTH"
STONE PUBLISHING CO.
CHARLOTTE, N. C.
By Isaac Erwin Avery, edited by Prof. Edwin Mims, late
of Trinity College, and University North Carolina, now of
Vanderbilt. New edition with a dedication to the late Joseph
Pearson Caldwell, by Wade H. Harris, editor Charlotte
Observer. The plates of the book are the property of
Trinity College and all royalties from its sale go to the
Erwin Avery Scholarship Fund of Trinity College.
Cloth: $1.50 net; postpaid $1.62. Special Gift Edition.
'Green Ooze Calf — bound "Roycroftie," $2.50.
"Idle Comments." — In a former issue we had a brief no-
tice of this delightful book, which we wish now to notice
These papers came out at different intervals in the Char-
lotte Observer, and when they first appeared, the reading
public realized that a new star had appeared upon the hori-
zon, though we all realized also that no one could get a
•proper idea of the writer from these occasional articles.
However, even with these disadvantages, the articles were
read with eagerness and quoted with delight.
Now that they are before us in book form, we are really
astonished at their cumulative power over us.
There is nothing in American prose that can excel them.
They range from frolic to the severest morality, and through
them all there runs a vein of pathos that touches the ten-
■derest part of our natures.
His heart seems peculiarly susceptible to the tragedy of
the fallen women, which is seen in the article of the Girl
with a white dress, or the death in Springs Alley.
Mr. Avery did not live long enough to prove whether he
could write anything more ambitious than these fugitive
pieces, but we believe that the man who could write as he
did, day after day, was capable of anything in the line of
North Carolina has reason to be proud of her literary chil-
dren, and among them she rightly places Erwin Avery at the
We are indebted to the Stone Company of Charlotte for
the beautiful new edition of "Idle Comments" by I. E. Avery.
The book is dedicated to Joseph Pearson Caldwell, the
greatest editor North Carolina has produced, and the
prefatory note is written by Wade H. Harris, the present
editor of the Charlotte Observer. Avery occupies a unique
position among our North Carolina men of letters. Thia
book, which embraces the cream of his writings, is fresh,
natural and wholesome, and the Stone Company have done
a great service in bringing it out in this very attractive form.
"Idle Comments" is a volume made up of the miscellane-
ous writings of Mr. Avery, who during his service with the
Observer ran each Monday morning a column of philosophi-
cal musings, humorous comments and human interest nar-
ratives under the general head, "Idle Comments." The col-
lection embraced in the book, however, is not confined to
what appeared in that feature, the other notable writings
also being selected from his work on the paper. The book
was edited by Dr. Edward Mims, head of the department of
English Literature at Trinity College, and later at the Uni-
versity, now a member of the faculty of Vanderbilt Univer-
sity and so admirably executed is the work that this vol-
ume appears as if it had been written in just the order irt
which it appears by Mr. Avery. — Charlotte Observer.
With the rush of the Christmas season driving his force
to work day and night, and with his own hands filled with
tasks unfinished, the writer has sat for two hours idly turn-
ing the leaves of the book that holds for posterity the charm,
of Avery's pen and the fascination of his personality.
If there is another of North Carolina's sons whose pen
has the power to move and to charm as does Avery's, we
have not found him. And if there is any book, of the thou-
sands turned off the presses of the nation this year, wherein
one hears the voices of the children or catches so really the
fragrance of flowers, we have not, seen it.
What present for Christmas is so appropriate as a book?
What book could be bestowed with better taste than Avery's
"Idle Comments," which truly breathes a Christmas Spirit?'
— Elisabeth City Advance.
STONE PUBLISHING COMPANY,
Charlotte, N. C.
" Songs Merry and Sad "
By John Charles McNeill. Sixth edition. Cloth, $1.00
net. By mail $1.06. Limp Leather (Brown
Ooze Calf, bound " Roycroftie,") $1.50 postpaid.
Some Press and Other Comments
" I have read after Mr. McNeill and I have enjoyed his work."
— Theodore Roosevelt.
" The published poems of John Charles McNeill are said to
be meeting with a ready sale. The fact is a compliment to
the literary taste of North Carolina people." — Editorial in
" It is not too much to say that in the realm of pure poetry no
more satisfying volume than this has been published in the United
States in a decade." — Norfolk Landmark.
" It is a neat book and contains fifty-nine poetic gems from
the pen of Mr. McNeill. It is a fortunate thing that they have
been grouped into book form that they can better be preserved
and in that shape constitute a lasting and valuable contribution
to North Carolina literature." — Editorial in the Wilmington Star.
" His work I think is the most ambitious and the most suc-
cessful of all Southern verse writers of the day." — Interview in
" One must go across the Atlantic to Stephen Phillips to find
so tender a note and so deft a touch as Mr. McNeill here reveals."
— Editorial in the Biblical Recorder.
" Seems to have in him the making of a great poet." — Editorial
in Progressive Farmer.
" He is one of the rarest literary geniuses we have in the
South." — Editorial in the Raleigh Christian Advocate.
"The verses in this volume have about them that indefinable
quality which distinguishes poetry from mere verse. The work-
manship is so good that one almost doubts sometimes whether
it is not only the perfection of technique that allures and whether
the true soul of the poet is really here and not only the hand of
the artist. But as we read on we begin to see that the singer's
lips have indeed been touched with the glowing coal from the
true altar of song. We congratulate Mr. McNeill on this
charming volume." — Charleston News and Courier.
" His discrimination was splendid — he embraces in this volume
the best verse he has written. We hold him as the genius of
North Carolina, and this little volume justifies the claim." —
Editorial in the Charlotte Observer.
" The delicious Southern flavor and the tender touches of the
old plantation life make it especially refreshing to our Southern
people. It is the very cream of the work of the young author,
which has brought him the favor of the public in so great a
measure. It is perfectly free from affectation, but it is couched
in faultless English and reveals the highest gifts of the poet." —
Editorial in Charity and Children.
" Mr. McNeill is fast becoming one of the leading writers of
the South." — Editorial in the Clarkton Express.
" He has the gift, and there are those who are hoping that
the South shall have in him the poet who shall speak to the
heart of the world." — Editorial in the Presbyterian Standard.
" In the death of John Charles McNeill the State loses the finest
poetic genius ever born within its borders."
" But not one of these was the equal of McNeill. He surpassed
them in natural endowment, in range and delicacy of sympathy,
in loving familiarity with the homes and habits of woodland
things, in subtle knowledge of the great primal emotions of the
heart, and in that still rarer gift of craftsmanship, without which
the greatest genius must remain inarticulate. McNeill was a
poet because he looked life straight in the eyes, felt the virgin
wonder and glory of it all, and knew how to body forth his
feelings in lines of exquisite art and compelling appeal. I would
rather have written ' Songs, Merry and Sad,' than to have the
costliest monument in the state erected to my memory. The equal
of that little volume has not appeared in the South since Sidney
Lanier fell on sleep twenty-six years ago."— C, Alphonso Smith.
Lyrics From Cotton Land
Third Edition, with portrait and a short biographical
sketch of the author, artistically bound in Bandana
Cloth. Illustrated with five drawings by the cele-
brated artist made famous by his " Coon " draw-
ings, E. W. Kemble, one picture by A. B. Frost,
and eight photographs by Mrs. W. O. Kibble, among
them a photograph of cotton showing bloom, full
boll and open boll on the same stalk. Price $1.50
Orders for this book have come from all sections
of the United States and Canada. It is easily the
most distinctively Southern book ever published.
" ' Lyrics from Cotton Land ' will remain a priceless legacy to
the children of the South. It is a voice that had become almost
a memory. It is a key to the treasure house of a period fast
receding. It glorifies with simple and soulful melody ' the
tender grace of a day that is dead.' ' Uncle Remus,' up to
the advent of the brilliant young Scotchman, was the most faithful
and accurate exponent of ' Mr. Nigger ' in the realm of letters,
but Joel Chandler Harris is not a whit more life-like in his por-
trayal of the language as well as of the spirit of the old time
darkey than John Charles McNeill." — Charity and Children. ■ :
"Joel Chandler Harris has the black man down perfectly*
John Charles McNeill puts down the black man's thoughts and
language with perfect fidelity; and as an interpreter of his
thoughts and dialect, H. E. C. Bryant is scarcely inferior to
«ither." — J. P. Caldwell, in the Charlotte Observer.
" Seldom have we seen a book which has more charm and
fascination than 'Lyrics from Cotton Land,' by the late John
Charles McNeill; seldom a book of its character with a wider
range. Not only are the songs of the South sung as they are
rarely sung, but throughout is a touch of pathos and humor
which makes the heart throb and clothes life's stern responsibilities
with new meaning." — Pinehurst Outlook.
" If anyone ever says to you again that the South does not
produce beautiful books, you are hereby authorized to state that
that person is a mistaken. You will only, for instance, have
to refer him to Stone & Barringer Co., of Charlotte, N. C, who
has sent for review among other volumes, a book, ' Lyrics from
Cotton Land,' by John Charles McNeill, which is as tastily
produced, attractive in appearance and appropriately bound
as any book this scribe has seen in a long time." — Birmingham
" Tinctured with the quaint spirit of the South, ' Lyrics from
Cotton Land ' contains ninety-seven poems, and every one of
them is worth thoughtful reading." — San Francisco Examiner.
" Two years ago John Charles McNeill died and was buried
near the home of his parents in Scotland county, but he is not
forgotten, for he left behind a monument more lasting than stone.
The friends of the charming young Scotchman with the poetic
gift, did not begin to realize his real worth until after he had
passed away. His songs and lyrics are more highly and genu-
inely appreciated to-day than they were when they first came
from his pen." — H. E. C. Bryant, in Charlotte Observer.
" A distinct pleasure is felt even in just looking at the Ban-
dana edition of John Charles McNeill's ' Lyrics from Cotton
Land.' It is by far the most attarctive book ever published in
the State. The publishers, Stone & Barringer Co., of Charlotte,
N. C, have displayed unusual taste in the cover. As the name
' bandana edition ' signifies, it is bound in gay bandana cloth,
with a small round picture of a true old Southern mammy on
the front cover. The whole production is typically Southern and
unique."— Raleigh Evening Times,
In Love's Domain
By H. E. Harman. Cloth $1.50. Limp Leather (Green
Ooze Calf) $2.50.
" I want to send you my very sincere thanks for the great service
you have done me in sending me Mr. Harman's ' In Love's Do-
main.' My long absence from my native State has caused me
to miss Mr. Harman's work, and it was a pleasure to find it so
beautiful and true. It is not a mere versification that I find in
this book, but poetry, literature and noble feeling cast in noble
form. I hope you will present my compliments to Mr. Harman,
and express to him my deep sense of pride in his work and ap-
preciation of his thoughtfulness." — Edwin A. Alderman, President
University of Virginia.
" Poet, publisher and printer have combined their talents to
make an exquisitely charming volume for the book lovers out of
' In Love's Domain,' and they have accomplished their task. If
the magic of the book-maker invites one to the easy chair and
the fireside, the spell of the poet and the art of the engraver
have called indoors some of the glory of the fields and the woods.
That a North Carolina publishing house and a North Carolina
poet should produce a book of poems in such rich mechanical
setting calls for due honor and appreciation of North Carolina
people, and this we hope both author and publishers will receive
in a measure at least equal to their high desert." — North Caro-
" The verse of H. E. Harman has been compiled by Stone &
Barringer Co., of Charlotte, and issued in book form under the
title of ' In Love's Domain and the Call of the Woods.' Mr.
Harman has the gift of poetry, and his book will charm and please
the reader to the utmost. The illustrations are tasteful and the
mechanical work neat. Mr. Harman is a business man, but takes
time to commune with nature and the beautiful things of the
world, and his verse is a natural expression of the fine thoughts
within him." — Raleigh Evening Times.
" There came to our desk this morning the sweetest little book
we have ever seen. So daintily bound that we were sure that
within its covers must be beautiful thoughts. We opened it and
our eyes rested on the following lines:
" ' When close of day has set the west aglow
And night comes on with steady steps and slow,
I yearn for touch of vanished hand again
And touch of lips as in the long ago.'
" We read on while the busy world around us rushed on in
its foolish bustle, until our soul was full of sweet thoughts, and
we laid the dainty volume away to be read again and again
in our home after the shadows have caused the curtains to be
drawn, and we feel that we have a little treasure that will
brighten our life and chase many gloomy thoughts away.
" We thank the author, Mr. H. E. Harman, a Southern man,
for giving to his people a book that is full of beautiful thoughts,
and appreciate the kindness of the publishers, Stone & Barringer
Co., of Charlotte, N. C, in sending the book our way. We
hope every Southern man and woman will get a copy of this
book." — Burlington Neivs, Burlington, N. C.
" ' In Love's Domain ' is a most exquisite book of poems. All
the verses have been given a most artistic setting, and the illus-
trations are beautiful. No expense appears to have been spared
by the publishers, and the fact that a Southern publishing house
can bring out a book of poems in such expensive style shows that
the South is coming into its own in a literary way. The author
of ' In Love's Domain ' is Southern, the making of the book is
Southern, and in the result every Southerner must feel a pride."
— Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch, Norfolk, Va.
" ' In Love's Domain ' is a triumph of Southern book making.
We have seen no volume more artistically and beautifully gotten
up. Every illustration is inspiring, most of them being from
photographs. It is a hopeful note for Southern literature that
such a volume should come from publishers in Dixie. They are
to be congratulated.
" The verses of Mr. Harman are exquisite and full deserving
of their artistic setting.
" This book is well worth while. It would make a very pretty
Christmas present." — Charleston News and Courier, Charleston,
"The volume is nothing less than exquisite. Binding, paper,
typography, all are exactly in harmony, while no holiday book
on the market for many years has surpassed ' In Love's Domain '
in beauty and aptness of illustration. The pictures of nature
are particularly fine, those depicting landscapes and woods bring-
ing with them the very scent of the big out-of-doors. The pub-
lishers have fully appreciated the value of the work they have
undertaken and have given it a vehicle which leaves nothing
to be desired. 1
" There is in his work the breath of the woods in spring, the
color of the blooming dogwood, the scent of the fields covered
with daisies. This world, judging by the view of it given in
his poetry, is to him a place to be enjoyed, with plenty of sor-
row mixed in to form the necessary contrast. His note is sweet
and clear, rather than majestic and compelling." — Review in
" Mr. Harman writes verse, not in the spirit of the professional
writer, but because many gently beautiful things within him
struggle for and find beautiful expression. The inner life which
he combines with business success shows how the South may com-
bine old ideals with new material advancement. The published
volume is an exquisite thing, a thorough credit to the publishers.
' In Love's Domain ' belongs with the Avery and McNeill books,
belongs in that high lineage." — Editorial in Charlotte Observer.
" ' In Love's Domain ' is an alluring volume of sweet simplicities
from the Hills of North Carolina, issued by the Stone & Barringer
Co., of Charlotte, N. C. This beautiful book is dedicated to
all ' Who walk the ways of sweet content, outward and back
again.' Of sweetness and light there is enough in the modest
volume, and now and then the poignant praises of genius is sung
in humble measure. H. E. Harman is the name of this new song-
ster of the South, who prettily names the domains of love as an
' amber plain.' He will be heard from in more robust fashion
again, no doubt." — Jacksonville Sunday Times-Union.
Gates of Twilight
By H. E. Harman. Cloth $1.50; Limp Leather $2.50.
" If Harman's vision included to the utmost, the visible tangible
beauties of the world — and no more — much of ' The Gates of
Twilight ' would never have been written.
" Versifiers there have been who hymned the beauties of nature
without seeming to see anything therein but perfection of sensuous
loveliness, but their work has promptly been assigned to obliv-
ion. Harman is not of these. His mind and heart thrill with
delight at the budding hawthorn, or the willow-shaded stream;
his soul instantly rouses itself to inquire whether or not there is
meaning behind these lovely shapes." — From the Charlotte Daily
" Whoever knows and loves the South will find deep enjoyment
in the poems which Henry E. Harman has included in his new
volume. He will also be proud that a Southern publisher has
produced so beautiful a book.
" Mr. Harman is at his best when he writes of the South, its
natural charms and its wealth of historic tradition. Songs of the
South form a goodly part of the 63 poems.
" The book is bound in the daintiest blue, and the photographs
of Southern woodland scenery are both attractive and appropriate
to the text. There are also several posed photographs." — St.
Louis Post Dispatch.
" The keynote of this volume of idyls is struck in the dedica-
tion, which reads:
" ' Who loves the sunlight on the hills,
Who feels a pain at human wrongs,
Whose" soul at childhood's laughter thrills,
For him I sing these simple songs.'
" In many of these poems the author shows an advance over
his previously published work. The same spontaniety and fresh-
ness obtain, but there is a firmer touch, a surer confidence, a more
daring flight. ' The Fields of May ' is, perhaps, the best of
the longer poems, being full of beauty and musical value. All
are lofty and uplifting. Two tributes to Southern poets, Sidney
Lanier and John C. McNeill, are found in this volume. The
poem ' The Master In the Garden ' is strongly suggestive of
Lanier's ' Ballad of Trees and the Master,' and is worthy of
its subject, strong and dignified. The illustrations are from
photographs, and those of scenes from nature are very attrac-
tive, and add to the charm of the book." — New Orleans Picayune.
" A most beautiful piece of book-making. Sixty or more verses
.with many exquisite illustrations interspersed. The illustrations
are from photographs, the most being scenes of our southern
woodland, field, marsh and mountain. Especially fair is the one
' The Pictured Glory of the Dogwood Trees,' ' Spring Along
the Fair Savannah,' and ' Willow, My Willow ' are also very
beautiful. Many of the poems are written in an admirable spirit
of patriotism, ' Pickett's Charge,' ' Gettysburg,' ' The Sound of
" One of the most excellent pictures is that of the live oak at
Brunswick, Ga. Under this tree Sidney Lanier is said to have
written his ' Marshes of Glynn.' The tree is known the country
round as 'Lanier's Oak.'" — Birmingham, Alabama, Age-Herald.
" Tar Heel Tales "
By H. E. C. Bryant ("Red Buck"). Price, Cloth (North
Carolina, Brown checked Gingham), $1.25 net.
By mail $1.35.
Personal Letters (Published by Permission)
" I thank you heartily for the copy of ' Tar Heel Tales.' The
binding is unique and very attractive; the illustrations are ex-
cellent and illustrate. The best compliment that I can pay to
the contents is to say that I took the book home the evening afer
receiving it, and dipped into one of the little stories experimentally
after supper, and read story after story, finding it impossible
to lay the book aside until after eleven o'clock, and then laid it
aside only under orders from Mrs. Joyner. I trust that it will
have the wide sale it deserves." — J. Y. Joyner, Supt. Public In-
struction, Raleigh, N. C.
" Your ' Tar Heel Tales ' are delightful. They are as good
negro dialect stories as have ever been put into print. This is
the first book I have read at one sitting in a long time. I hope
that this is not the last one that you will write." — Champ Clark.
" I have just finished reading ' Tar Heel Tales,' and am de-
lighted with it. The stories are bright and sparkling, the humor
is delicate and refined. The negro dialect is such as only a
genuine Southerner can write. It is none of the ' make-believe
sort ' so often found in books by authors unacquainted with the-
negro at home." — W. R. Mills, Supt Public Schools, Louisburg,.
" Your stories are delightful, strongly written and true to the
character of place and people. I think that I have read ' Uncle
Ben's Last Fox Race' ten times and I shall read it willingly
ten times more, knowing that after that I shall still have the
determination to be a ' repeater.'
" I do not know the negro as you know him, but I have, I
think a much truer knowledge of him and his ways now that I
have read ' Tar Heel Tales.' Every Northern man, and I am
one, should read your story ' A Negro and His Friend.' I have
several book cases given over entirely to nature books. 'Tar
Heel Tales ' shall have a chief place among them." — Edward B~
Clark, Chicago Evening Post, Washington Correspondent.
A prominent educator says of Mr. Bryant : "As a writer of
negro dialect, I do not place him next to Uncle Rumus — Joel
Chandler Harris — but absolutely his equal; his negroes do not
use stage negro talk, but they talk, think, and act like the niggers
I knew as a boy on my father's farm."
Press notices of " Tar Heel Tales " have been numerous and
Here are a few extracts:
"The book is mechanically an interesting product of the book-
maker's art. The printing, paper and binding are all good.
The cloth covering used is a brown checked gingham, and the
title ' Tar Heel Tales ' is twined about with a burry pine bough
stamped in green and pine-bark brown." — North Carolina Edu-
cation, Raleigh, N. C.
" Mr. H. E. C. Bryant, of Charlotte and Washington, knows
how to tell a good story well. Story-telling with him is a gift
and an art. In the old days when he was still a bare-footed,
red headed, freckle-faced farmer boy, even then, he knew how
to tell a story, and wherever the boys gathered in the Providence
section, young Bryant was the magnet around which the others
were attracted, and when he talked, and that was usually all the
time, the others listened. His powers in the way of story telling
were a source of wonder and admiration to the other boys. This
natural gift he has cultivated until now he tells or writes a story
that will appeal to and hold anyone. His stories of the negro
and of the old days and of fox hunts, of which sport he is a
past-master, have long attracted attention and because of the
place they have gained in the hearts of the people and the in-
sistent demand for them have at last been issued in book form.
' Tar Heel Tales ' is the name of the book which is now presented
to the public." — Evening Times, Raleigh, N. C.
" The book is a sure enough Tar Heel production. The writer
is a red-headed Tar Heel. It is dedicated to Mr. J. P. Caldwell,
the well known Tar Heel editor. It is published by Stone &
Barringer Co., of Charlotte, N. C, a Tar Heel book company. It
is bound in checked gingham, a Tar Heel production, and the
tales (and they are good ones), are about Tar Heel folks. If
you want a book that will put you in a good humor when you
have a case of the blues, get this book." — Spring Hope Leader.
The Breed and the Pasture
By J. Lenoir Chambers. Cloth, Price $1.00; By Mail
" In the ' Breed and the Pasture ' we have certain features of
an easily recognized piedmont community, sketched by the -pea
of one who knows and loves it well.
" It is not the purpose of this article to abstract or summarize
what this exquisite set of essays contains. No one who is in-
terested in the course of events which have led to the creation
of the New South can afford not to read every line of them.
The whole may be completed from cover to cover in a single un-
interrupted evening. This done, the reader cannot fail to have a
clearer insight into the meaning of the expression ' down home '
and to feel a deeper throbbing of the sentiment conveyed in the
well known lines beginning, ' Here's to the land of the long-leaf
pine.' Furthermore, he will have become acquainted with a
set of essays couched in as clear and beautiful language as any
that have appeared for many a year, a style that, never becoming
stilted or over-ornate continues from first to last, lucid, euphon-
" The ' Woman of the South ' has been toasted at countless
banquets, has been lauded in thousands of fulsome, yet heart-
felt words. Scores and even hundreds of tributes spring to mind.
In all the articles this reviewer has ever read dealing with this
favorite topic, there is not a single one which equals Mr. Cham-
bers' chapter entitled ' The Forgotten Woman,' in beauty of
conception and delicacy of execution.
" The apologists for the South have too frequently over-empha-
sized the ' story of the glory of the men who wore the gray '
to such an extent that economic phenomena have been thrust to
one side or entirely neglected. The chapter mentioned is a
dispassionate and philosophical statement, not of a partisan, but
of a cool-headed, practical man of affairs, of how matters look
to him from a retrospect of nearly half a century after Appomat-
tox. The defects of the Southerner are not minimized any more
than are the undoubted virtues of the Puritan omitted and the
result is a distinct contribution to the philosophy of the history of
the Civil War." — Review in Charlotte Observer.
" Mr. Chambers, whatever his personal experience, could not
have written as he has done without fine selective imagination
joined to graceful style. No prosy reminiscences here, but the
firm touch of a man who has only reached the prime of his life,
and whom years may never make old. His are different pictures
from those which the public justly grew tired of long ago. We
find them delightful. Evanston, the town which Mr. Chambers
describes, with its neighboring county seat, will be recognized
at once by many people. Most of his characters belong to this
present generation — Isaac Erwin Avery among them." — Edito-
rial in Charlotte Observer.
Memoir or Julia Jackson Christian
Daughter of " Stonewall " Jackson, by M. A. Jackson
(her mother). Charlotte, N. C. Cloth, 50 cents,
"Stonewall" Jackson's Daughter
"This is an interesting and pious little memorial of the only
child of ' Stonewall ' Jackson's that survived infancy, Julia Jackson,
afterward Mrs. Christian. Julia was born in Charlotte, N. C,
November 23rd, 1862, while her illustrious father was at the
front. As General Jackson never left the army on furlough,
his little daughter was four months old before he saw her, when
her mother took her to his camp, then at Guiney's, Va.
" The brief story is simply but tenderly and lovingly written,
and it should be valued by thousands of ' Confederate ' mothers
and daughters. The book contains a number of interesting let-
ters and much information concerning Stonewall Jackson and his
home life." — Columbia State.
" This memorial of the brief life of Stonewall Jackson's only
child, written by the great soldier's venerable widow, cannot
fail to stir the heart of every Southern reader to whose hands it
" It is written with the same purity and simplicity of style
which delighted us in the Life of Gen. T. J. Jackson, from the
" Even if we did not know her for a hero's daughter, the beau-
tiful life so beautifully told in this dainty volume would deeply
interest us. But when we realize to whose intimacy we are here
admitted, we welcome this memoir with a glow of grateful en-
thusiasm." — Charlotte Observer.
" This book, like this article, is, of course, intensely personal.
Mrs. Jackson has simply taken the people whom she loves into
her heart and told them a simple story of her 'holy of holies.'
The people of the south will appreciate the confidence and love
the Story." — Raleigh Times.